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2. How do the effects of insulin resistance compound to decrease cellular responses to insulin?-Insulin resistance decreases cellular responses to insulin by a decrease in insulin receptor kinase activity whenever insulin binds to the receptors. Also a decrease in the affinity of signaling molecules for the receptors (because of less phosphorylation on the cytoplasmic domains on the receptor and feedback inhibition), and a faulty kinase cascade that might not be activated properly as well as a malfunctioning second messenger signaling pathway.3. Hypothesize a mechanism by which the GLUT4 transporter’s fusion to the cell membrane could be decreased.-An overstimulation by insulin signaling molecules (such as in type II diabetes) can distortthe response to insulin receptors. A distorted response will lead to a changed
intracellular signaling pathway. With this alteration, less GLUT4-bound vesicles will bind to the cell membrane, leading to a decrease amount of glucose intake by the cell.4. Consider the possible projects that Mia could study. a. Which project would you pick? -Diabetes and Insulin Signalingb. Why do you think this project is important? -In order for Mia to understand the other projects, it is imperative that she understands the basis of insulin signaling and its effect with diabetes. This project also educates Mia on what is occurring in diabetic patients, such as her grandfather. Her instructor advised her to note the different parts of the pathway and its effects which provides more educational information for her study of choice. c. What kind of experiments would you do?-I would conduct experiments that would be beneficial for my undergraduate career. I’d like to focus on the effects of diabetes and study habits amongst college students. Another interesting experiment would be the effects of underproduction of insulin on various organs within a certain age group.