The Roman Empire was huge and Roman armies occupied a lot of land and they brought Latin with them. Native languages were either extinguished or suppressed. Some words from those native languages were integrated into the Latin spoken in each province. When the Roman Empire fell, communication between the provinces declined and each region’s Latin evolved and became its own language. 14. Define Vulgar Latin : A spoken form of Latin that people in the provinces learned. 15. What is the name of the (theoretical) common ancestral language of all languages discussed in this key issue of the chapter? Proto-Indo-European 5
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Chapter 5: Languages 16. Why is its existence difficult (impossible) to prove? There was no written form of it 17. Contrast the two views of the origin of this language in the chart below. “Kurgan” Theory Renfrew Hypothesis The first speakers of Proto-Indo-European were the Kurgan people, who were nomadic herders in 4300 BC. The first Proto-Indo-European speakers lived 2,000 years before the Kurgans in eastern Antolia (part of present-day Turkey), and that the language spread to Greece. Key Issue 3: Why Do Individual Languages Vary Among Places? Pages 158-163 1. Dialects are defined as “regional variations of a language” and are distinguished by three things. What are they? ● Vocab ● Spelling ● Pronunciation 2. Explain what an isogloss is. A word-usage boundary 3. People from all three eastern regions (New England, Southeastern, Midlands) migrated into the Midwest, Great Plains and Western United States. Why is there a relatively uniform form of English (dialect) spoken across this enormous area? Migration caused some of these dialects to mix together and create one. 6
The Cultural Landscape by Rubenstein Chapter 5: Languages 4. Define standard language : A dialect that has been well established and recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication. 5. What is the standard language for of English? Where did it come from (3 cities)? How was it diffused throughout Britain? Received Pronunciation. London, Cambridge, Oxford. Diffusion was encouraged by the printing press, grammar books, and dictionaries. It is what was taught in schools throughout the country. 6. In a single word , why is American English different from that spoken in England? Isolation 7. Why don’t people in the United States speak “proper” English? The people in the US and England were separated from each other for many years. 8. Why is it that nearly 90% of Spanish & Portuguese speakers live outside of Europe? Diffused by explorers 9. Why is it difficult to distinguish individual languages from dialects? Dialects change so much that they can often sound like completely different languages.
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- Spring '17
- Alexander Egert
- Chapter 5, Reading guide, languages, Rubenstein