The proportions are referenced to the mass daltons

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The “proportions” are referenced to the MASS Dalton’s atomic theory - Elements are made of extremely small particles called atoms - Atoms of a given elements are identical size, mass and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties - Atoms cannot be split, created or destroyed - Atoms of different elements combine in simples whole number rations to form chemical compounds - In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated or rearranged 9/5/12 - Charles Darwin- evolution - Louis Pasteur- Germ theory of disease - JJ Thompson identified the electron-“cathode ray” - Milikan Oil Drop experiment discovered mass of electron - Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment - All the mass was in the nuclei - Nucleus contains protons and neutrons 9/7/12 - Avogados number=6.02214129x10^23= mass of an atom - Pv=nRt or PV=NkT k=Boltzmann’s constant - Moles are a huge number 9/10/12 - 22.4 L gas= Avogadros number - Two types of bonds:
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-Ionic- the compound is a collection on ions that are held together by electrostatic forces when a 3D lattice is adopted - Covalent-Atoms are held together in localized and directional patterns through sharing of electrons. The more electrons shared, the stronger the bond - Preferred ions leave the atom with the same number of electrons as a noble gas - Ionic compounds-form a combination of a metallic ion (typically the cation) and a nonmetallic ion( typically the anion) - the “ molecular formula” is just the ion ration for a neutral compound: 1:1 9/12/12 - Acids- are typically restricted to solutions molecules in water-an “aqueous” solution. In water, these molecules dissociate into ions- “solvate” 9/14/12 - Percent Yield= (actual yield in g)/(Theoretical yield in g)x100 - Solution Molarity= (moles solute)/(volume solvent in L) - 9/17/12 -
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