3 johnson vetoed both laws but congress overrode him

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3. Johnson vetoed both laws but Congress overrode him on each of them. The 14th Amendment 1. 14th Amendment = everyone born in the U.S and everyone naturalized was automatically a citizen and entitled to all the “privileges and immunities” guaranteed by the Constitution. 2. States that denied suffrage to blacks would have their representatives reduced. 3. Prohibited former members of Congress/other former federal officials who aided the Confederacy from holding any state or federal office unless 2/3s of the Congress voted to pardon them. The Congressional Plan 1. New constitutions had to ratify the 14th amendment → making it part of the Constitutions. 2. Congress added an + requirement for readmission- ratification of the 15th Amendment which forbade the states & the federal govt to deny any suffrage to any citizen on account of “race, color or previous conditions of servitude”. 3. Tenure of Office Act- forbade the president to remove civil officials w/o consent of the Senate. 4. Command of the Army Act- prohibited the president from issuing military orders except through the commanding general of the army.Proposed several bill that would require 2/3s of the juries to support any decision overruling a law of Congress. The Impeachment of the President 1. When Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Stanton despite Congress's refusal to agree elated radicals in the House quickly impeached the president & sent the case to the Senate for trial. The South in Reconstruction The Reconstruction Governments 1. Scalawags = southern white republicans. 2. Carpetbaggers =(an image) penniless adv who arrived w/ all their possessions in a carpet bag. 3. A.A served as delegates to the constitutional conventions, held public offices. 4. Blacks never controlled any of the state legislatures, although they held a majority in the lower house in S.A. 5. Officeholder often enriched themselves through graft and other illicit activities → state budgets expand and increase in debt. 6. A rapid economic expansion of govt services → corruption. Education 1. Reconstruction govt build comprehensive public schools systems in the South. 2. Southern ed was divided into two separate systems, one black and one white. Landownership and Tenancy 1. Govt returned most of the confiscated land to the original white owners. 2. Freed’s Bank(1865)- was established to promote land ownership among blacks(unsuccessful). 3. Most blacks became tenants of white landowners working their own own plots of land and paying their landlords either a fixed rent or a share of their crop. 4. Gang-labor system =slaves had lived & worked together under the direction of a master. The Crop-Lien System 1. Crop-lien system = customers rely on credit from merchants in order to purchase what they needed
2. Farmers had to give the merchants a lien (or claim) on their crops as collateral for the loans.the relentless planting of cotton → exhaustion of the soil.

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