Johnson vetoed both laws but Congress overrode him on each of them.
The 14th Amendment
14th Amendment = everyone born in the U.S and everyone naturalized was automatically a
citizen and entitled to all the “privileges and immunities” guaranteed by the Constitution.
States that denied suffrage to blacks would have their representatives reduced.
Prohibited former members of Congress/other former federal officials who aided the Confederacy
from holding any state or federal office unless 2/3s of the Congress voted to pardon them.
The Congressional Plan
New constitutions had to
ratify the 14th amendment
→ making it part of the Constitutions.
Congress added an +
requirement for readmission-
ratification of the 15th Amendment which
forbade the states & the federal govt to deny any suffrage to any citizen on account of “race, color
or previous conditions of servitude”.
Tenure of Office Act- forbade the president to remove civil officials w/o consent of the Senate.
Command of the Army Act- prohibited the president from issuing military orders except through
the commanding general of the army.Proposed several bill that would require 2/3s of the juries to
support any decision overruling a law of Congress.
The Impeachment of the President
When Johnson dismissed Secretary of War Stanton despite Congress's refusal to agree
elated radicals in the House quickly impeached the president & sent the case to the Senate for
The South in Reconstruction
The Reconstruction Governments
Scalawags = southern white republicans.
Carpetbaggers =(an image) penniless adv who arrived w/ all their possessions in a carpet bag.
A.A served as delegates to the constitutional conventions, held public offices.
Blacks never controlled any of the state legislatures, although they held a majority in the lower
house in S.A.
Officeholder often enriched themselves through graft and other illicit activities → state
budgets expand and increase in debt.
A rapid economic expansion of govt services → corruption.
Reconstruction govt build comprehensive public schools systems in the South.
Southern ed was divided into two separate systems, one black and one white.
Landownership and Tenancy
Govt returned most of the confiscated land to the original white owners.
Freed’s Bank(1865)- was established to promote land ownership among blacks(unsuccessful).
Most blacks became tenants of white landowners working their own own plots of land and paying
their landlords either a fixed rent or a share of their crop.
Gang-labor system =slaves had lived & worked together under the direction of a master.
The Crop-Lien System
Crop-lien system = customers rely on credit from merchants in order to purchase what they