Ii dismantling segregation a brown v board of

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II. Dismantling Segregation: A. Brown v. Board of Education (1954): Challenge to the doctrine of Plessy vs. Fergusson. Challenging very concept at the court. There is no such thing as separate but equal. -- challenge to separate but equal: if you separate people you are automatically making things unequal. In favor of this argument, over turns Plessy vs. Ferguson. -- Thurgood Marshall: NAACP lawyer argues the case. Thurgood Marshall- first Africen American on Supreme Court. Clarence Thomas second black ever. -- Southern Manifesto (1956 ): 101 southern congressmen: urges resistance to the ruling. Supreme Court decision doesn’t reinforce any of it. -- Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas (1957): Forces the issues. The governor: Orvil Fallace, totally on board with Southern manifesto. 270 national guardsmen to prevent 9 black students from attending to school. Allow their attendance (Eisenhower), they can go to school but not helping them. Federal troops escorted them in. Introduces people to what
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is going on elsewhere in the world. Televising of this causes much public opinion on segregation. Launch modern civil rights movement. Issue: Federal power vs. state authority. Federal Government decides to usurped the states. B. The Civil Rights Movement starts at the establishment of NAACP, starts in the late 40s. 1. Freedom Rides: 1947, peak in 1961, Morgan vs. Virginia, desegretaed buses, various groups tried to override this ruling. 1961, the congress of racial equality, interracial student group, rode around the South 2. Sit-Ins: 70,000 sat in at a diner, 3,000 arrests, in North Carolina. You go somewhere, you force desegregation by not leaving. 3. Economic Boycotts: attempt to vote with your dollars, by not spending them where blacks are treated poorly.
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