d.The frontier was the site of many revivals and converts, but this was not the section dubbed the Burned-Over district. e.Urbanization would face its share of problems in terms of crowding and sanitation in the nineteenth century, but none of this had to do with the term Burned-Over District.Question 4a.Brigham Young actually took up the work of Joseph Smith after he and his brother were murdered by a mob in Illinois. In 1846, Young led his Latter-Day Saints to what would become their new and permanent homeland in Utah. b.Correct answer. In 1830, preacher Joseph Smith, who was active in revivals in the Burned-Over District, claimed he was given golden plates from an angel that were translated to the Book of Mormon. That launched the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons). c.Charles Finney was a major figure and preacher of the Second Great Awakening, who was said to have converted over half a million people. He later served as President of Oberlin College and became a vital force in the antislavery movement. d.Peter Cartwright was the most famous of the preachers who traveled to the frontier.e.William Miller was the leader of the Millerites, or Adventists, who predicted the second-coming of Christ on October 22, 1844. Question 5a.As more workers were granted voting rights, it translated into greater outcries for public education for their children. Conservatives, meanwhile, began to support public education because they worried that without it, children would grow up to become ignorant masses who could vote—and thereby influence the nation’s future in potentially dangerous or at least ill-advised ways. b.The traditional American school was a one-room building open just a few months a year with one teacher, a fireplace, and up to eight grades of students. Horace Mann, secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, spearheaded a campaign for better facilities and better pay for teachers—all of which netted major improvements that were copied in other states.c.Educational reform efforts focused on keeping children in school for longer terms that would improve literacy and overall competence.d.Several textbooks in the 1820s and 1830s helped improve the quality of education, among them Noah Webster’s “reading lessons” and his famous dictionary, and William H. McGuffey’s grade-school readers. e.Correct answer. Despite improvements, the number of public schools did not expand rapidly due to the heavy costs involved. In 1860, there were just 100 public secondary schools, and almost one million white adults remained illiterate.
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Chapter 15Question 6a.Questions of funding had first to overcome notions of whether it was proper or necessary to educate women. b.Correct answer. Many people in the early nineteenth century not only believed that women’ place was in the home, but they also felt that women’s brains and health could be impaired if they had to learn too much, and that they would become unfit for marriage. The only education women were presumed to need was instruction that would aid them in managing a home, such as needlecraft.
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