Spontaneously assemble into bilayer due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic endsWhat are steroids?Steroidsare lipids with a carbon skeleton of four connected rings.Why do estrogen and testosterone differ?Due to Functional groups Describe some functions of proteins.Structural supportStorageTransportCellular communications Movement Immune responsesWhat are enzymes? What function do they perform?
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Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts in chemical reactions Are proteins polymers?yesWhat is a polypeptide?A linear organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino-acids bondedTogether in a chain forming a protein moleculeWhat is an amino acid? How many amino acids exist?a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group + R. 20 amino acidWhat gives an amino acid its unique properties? R groupHow do peptide bonds form?A peptide bondis a chemical bondformed between two molecules when the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water (H2O).Protein activity results from what?Proteins acting as enzymes (catalyst) Must fit together Shape affects function How many levels of structure does a protein formed from one polypeptide have? Up to 4Describe primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure.Primary - sequence of amino acids Secondary - consists of coils and folds A helix B pleated sheets Only deals with backbone Only hydrogen bonds Tertiary - structure determined by interactions among R groups Some proteins can functionDisulfide bridge is when two sulfur atoms form a bond Quaternary - results when two or more polypeptide chains createone macromoleculeWhat are the potential consequences of changes in primary structure?A peptide bond is formed between two moleculeswhen the carboxylgroup of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule, releasing a molecule of water. Can denatured proteins renature?Yes When denaturing agent is removed, protein will renature Due to primary structure, secondary structure will reform What is a chaperonin?
A protein that assists proper folding of other proteins It provides a proper microenvironment for folding Linked to neurological disorders Nucleic acids include what?Made of amino acids in a specific sequence determined by genes How does DNA direct protein synthesis?Thru transcription of mRNAAre nucleic acids macromolecules?Yes, because they can form polymers What would be a monomer of a nucleic acid molecule?Nucleotide Phosphodeister bondsWhat is a nucleotide? Monomer of nucleic acids Made of variable (5 C) sugars + nitrogenous base + phosphate group `How many nitrogenous bases are found in nucleic acids?Five: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, uracel What are the differences between DNA and RNA?DNA- provides instructions for its own replication Directs RNA synthesis 2 strings of polynucleotide Strands run antiparallel RNA- single polynucleotide Only certain nitrogenous bases can pair with each other. Describe this pairing.Adenine - thymine Guanine - cytosine Mutations occur repeatedly The differences can indicate how much time has passedfrom ancestor to generation Berzelius - vitalism Wohler - accidentally proved him wrong , student of berzelius Stanley - best example of abiotic synthesis of organic compounds
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