realized that the French were only interested in gaining new colonies in the negotiations. They also knew the Spanish would do everything they could to keep the United States from gaining territory west of the Appalachians. They thus decided to negotiate a treaty separately with the British. In the final Treaty of Paris, approved on September 3, 1783, Great Britain recognized the United States as “free, sovereign, and independent.” The United States was granted all the land west of the Appalachians—from the Great Lakes to the north, to the Mississippi River to the west, and finally to the northern border of Florida to the south (Figure 5.4). Americans would be allowed to fish off the Grand Banks of Canada, and the British promised to remove their troops from American territory “with all convenient speed,” and the Congress would encourage the individual states to com-pensate Loyalists for any loss of property (Dull, 1985, pp. 152–164).
CHAPTER 5ConclusionFigure 5.4: Land Granted to the United States by Britain in the Treaty of ParisThe map shows the borders of the United States set by the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The newly independent country now included the 13 former colonies along the Eastern Seaboard and extended west to the Mississippi River, north to the Great Lakes, and south to the Florida Territory.ConclusionAs the American Revolution ended, many Americans could hardly believe they had won. George Washington himself remarked that the victory of the United States was “almost a miracle” (Ferling, 2003, p. xii). But there was little time for reflec-tion on how it had happened. Almost immediately, the Americans, who had staked their claim on the belief that a free people could rule a nation, were confronted with an even more difficult task than defeating the British. They had to establish a workable national government that would reconcile the competing interests of 13 states and a huge western territory, as well as implement the ideal of equality for which they had fought. Using the inspired words of the Declaration of Independence for guidance, they would begin the task of building a better future for themselves and their descendants.
CHAPTER 5Chapter SummaryChapter Summary•As American militiamen battled British regulars outside of Boston in the summerof 1775, representatives in the Continental Congress in Philadelphia argued over the meaning of the conflict. Moderates such as John Dickinson of Pennsylvania hoped for an eventual reconciliation with Great Britain, whereas radicals such as John Adams of Massachusetts worked for American independence.•King George III saw the colonial rebellion as a chance to win back power for theBritish monarchy that had been lost since the Glorious Revolution, and he took a leading role in prosecuting the war against the Americans.•The publication of Thomas Paine’s pamphletCommon Sensein early 1776 helped many Americans make up their minds for independence. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted to declare independence from Great Britain and establish the United States of America. Two days later, Congress approved
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