bully others and are bullied themselves), which was not found in any other form of bullying. Read more about these findings in the NICHD news release: Depression High Among Youth Victims of School Cyberbullying, NIH Researchers Report . SHORT- AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF BULLYING 19
Bullying Bullying has short- and long-term effects on victims (passive and bully),bystanders, and bullies. Kuppersmith and Patterson (1991) believed that allof these groups often report academic impact, depression, and self-esteemissues as a result of the bullying. Additional effects are mental and phys-ical health issues, anxiety, and depression, although these effects mightmanifest differently for (passive and bully) victims, bystanders, and bullies(Campbell & Morrison, 2007; Nansel et al., 2001). Not surprisingly, victimsand bystanders generally do not feel safe at school. They often have troublesleeping, have stomach pain, feel tense, are tired, and have a poor appetite (Fekkes, Pijpers, Fredricks, Vogels, & Verloove-Van Horick, 2004). They alsotend to have lower grades (Arsenault et al., 2006), have higher absenteeismrates (Smith, Pepler, & Rigby, 2004), and are often perceived by teachers asless happy. Furthermore, victims and bystanders have often witnessed pas-sivity by school staff and administrators after the bullying has been broughtto their attention. This results in many of the passive victims and bystandersnot being able to perform well in school. Additionally, passivevictims gen-erally struggle with questions such as these: What is wrong with me thatothers are so mean to me? Why can’t I make it stop? They often concludethat nobody can make it stop, and it will never end. They worry and wonder when and if they will become the next victim, feeling hopeless and discour-aged about being able to protect themselves. Others get appropriate adultsupport and help, resulting in loneliness, school avoidance (missing out onschool connectiveness and educational advancement), and low self-esteem(Fekkes et al., 2004; Hawker & Boulton, 2000450 K. Jordan and J. Austin Long-term effects have also been reported for bullies. Bullies tend toexperience higher rates of psychological problems, conduct problems, delin-quency, stealing, and vandalism, and they have more trouble with the police(Haynie et al., 2001; Nansel et al., 2001). Bullying has also been 20
Bullying related toinvolvement in future relationships that are less emotionally supportive andequitable than those of their peers. Furthermore, bullies reportedly engagein more social and physical aggression toward their dating partners thantheir peers (Connolly, Furman, & Konarski, 2000). In addition, bullies arebelieved to be convicted of crimes as adults more often than their peers.For example, a study conducted by Olweus (1993) revealed that after highschool graduation until their 24th birthdays, 35% to 40% of bullies reportedhaving had three or more court convictions. SUMMARY Bullying, including cyberbullying, is a real issue for many children and adolescents in the United States and other countries. As demonstrated inthis article through a comprehensive literature review, bullying has seriousshort- and long-term effects on the bully, the passive victim, the bully victim,and the bystander. Parent–educator partnerships are important in respondingproactively to
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