Wagon tragedy the epilogue in the sense that it came

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Wagon Tragedy. The epilogue (in the sense that it came to be known only later) was the "Wagon Tragedy" in which 61 of the 70 Moppila prisoners packed in a closed railway goods wagon and carried to Coimbatore jails, died of suffocation on November 10, 1921.In the wake of the suppression of the Malabar Rebellion and until almost the end of the decade, struggle purely for political freedom was on a low key.
School of Distance Education Modern Indian History (Course II) Page 11 Non-Cooperation Movement Non-Cooperation was a movement of passive resistance against British rule, which was initiated by Mahatma Gandhi.To resist the dominance of the British Government and advance the Indian nationalist cause, the non-cooperation movement was a non-violent movement that prevailed nationwide by Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.This movement took place from September 1920 to February 1922 and initiated Gandhi era in the Independence Movement of India. The Rowlatt Act, Jaliwanwala Bagh massacre and Martial Law in Punjab caused the native people not to trust the British Government anymore.The Montagu- Chelmesford Report with its diarchy could satisfy a few only.Until then Gandhi believed the justice and fair-play of the British Government, but after this incidences he felt that Non-cooperation with the Government in a non-violent way must be started.In the meantime the Muslims in India also revolted against the harsh terms of the Treaty of severes between Allies and Turkey and they started Khilafat movement.Gandhi also decided to stand beside them.Gandhiji`s idea of winning over Muslim support also helped in Non-Cooperation Movement of India. Gandhi had given a notice to the Viceroy in his letter of 22nd June in which he had affirmed the right recognized `from time immemorial of the subject to refuse to assist a ruler who misrules`.After the notice had expired the Non-Cooperation movement was launched formally on 1st August of 1920. At the Calcutta Session on September, 1920 the program of the movement was stated. The programs of Non-cooperation involved the surrender of titles and offices and resignation from the nominated posts in the government body.It included not attending Government duties,Durbars and other functions, withdrawing children from government schools and colleges and establishment of national schools and colleges.The people of India were instructed to boycott the British courts and establish the private judicial courts.The Indians should use Swadeshi cloth and boycott the foreign clothes and other things.Gandhiji strictly advised the Non- Cooperators to observe truth and non-violence. The decision taken in Calcutta Session was supported in the Nagpur Session of the Congress on December; 1920.The decision was also taken for the betterment of the party organization.Any adult man or woman could take Congress membership for 4 annas as subscription.This adoption of new rules gave a new energy to the Non-

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