worked with the help of two maulvis. Over the district courts were created the courts of appeal at Calcutta. The Sadar Diwan Adalat consisted of the Governor and two members of the council assisted by the Diwan of the exchequer, the head Qanungo etc. Sadar Nizamat Adalat was presided over by the Nazim's deputy, a muslim officer, who was assisted by Maulvis. In 1773 the Regulating Act set up in Bengal the Supreme Court wh~ch derived its power from the Crown. The establishment of the Supreme Court led to the emergence of two rival sets of judicial authorities: The Supreme Court, and Sadar Diwani Adalat. A temporary solution was found with the appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as Presrdent of the Sadar Diwani Adalat. In 1790 criminal appeals were transferred to the Governor-General and Council who was to be assisted by Chief Qazi and two muftis. This was part of the general policy of Cornwallis in replacing Indians by Europeans in all higher posts. Cornwallis established District courts under British judges. He separated the posts of civil judge and the collector from whom appeals lay to four new appellate courts set up at Calcutta, Dacca, Murshidabad and Patna. Below the district courts were Registrar's courts, headed by Europeans and a number of subordinate courts headed by Indian judges known as Munsifs and Amins. Cornwalliserected the structure of a system of govcrnmcnt undcrwhich India came to be ruled for t h c next hundrcd years. I t was bascd on thc perpetuation of foreign rulc and exploitation of the wealth of thc governed. Colonialism : The New Administrative System - Pre and Pmt 1 8 7 - - - In 1801 the judicial authority of the Governor Generill anrl council came to an end and three judges were appointed to form the S:ltl;~r Iliwuni Arlalat or ~ivlAppellate Court. The principle of duality hetween thc courts of the Crown and the zamindari courts e-nded in 1Mil whcn the Indian High Court Act established High C:ourts at Calcutta. Madras and Bombay in placc of the Suprc~nc C'ourt :I> wcll a h thc S:I~~:II- Cour~.
Imperialism. Nationalism Colonialism and The important features of the new judicial set up were the rule of law. equality before law, recognition of the right to be judged by his personal law and thc growth o f the professional and trained judicial hierarchy. However, the new judicial system suffered from certain serious weaknesses. In criminal cases the Europeans had separate courts and even laws. They were tried by European judges who at times gave them undue protection. In civil matters the situation wasquite scrious. The courts were situated at distant places. the procedures were long and tinic consuming. Justice was proving very expensive. Village committees and panchayats lost importance even in the village matters.