Finally migration to the city was difficult in spite

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Macroeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
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Chapter 19 / Exercise 7
Macroeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
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were limited. Finally, migration to the city was difficult. In spite of these problems, many preindustrial cities had a sense of community—a set of social relationships operating within given spatial boundaries or locations that provides people with a sense of identity and a feeling of belonging. The cities were full of people from all walks of life, both rich andpoor, and they felt a high degree of social integration.Pages: 515LO: 912.Based on urbanization and the growth of cities, discuss the functionalist perspective as it relates to the ecological models.Answer: Functionalists in studying the growth of cities, emphasize the life cycle of urban growth. Sociologist Robert Park based his analysis of the city on human ecology – the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment. Economic competition produces certain regularities in land-use patterns and population distributions. Sociologist Ernest Burgess developed the concentric zone model—a description of the process of urban growth that views the city as a series of circular areas or zones, each characterized by a different type of land use that developed from a central core. Two important ecological processes are involved: (1) invasion—is the process by which a new category of people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or type of land use. (2) succession—is the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity. Gentrification—is the process by which members of the middle and upper-middle classes, especially whites, move into the central-city area and renovate existing properties. The concentric zone model demonstrates how economic and political forces play an important part in the location of groups and activities, and it shows how a large urban area can have internal differentiation. Urban ecologist Homer Hoyt’s sector model emphasizes the significance of terrain and the importance of transportation routes in the layout of cities. According to Hoyt, residence of a particular type and value tend to grow outward from the center of the city in wedge-shaped sectors, with the more-expensive residential neighborhoods located along the higher ground near lakes and rivers or along certain streets that stretch in one direction or another from the downtown area. According to the multiple nuclei model developed by urban ecologists Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman, cities do not have one center from which all growth radiates, but rather have numerous centers of development based on specific urban needs or activities. As cities began to grow rapidly, they annexed formerly outlying and independent townships that had been communities in their own right. According to urban ecologist Amos Hawley, urban areas are complex and expanding social systems in which growth 554
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Macroeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
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Chapter 19 / Exercise 7
Macroeconomics: A Contemporary Introduction
McEachern
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Chapter 1patterns are based on advances in transportation and communication. Social area

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