L2 4 L2t Kpb L1 Kbp L2 5 Lp L1tL2t 6 end Use a nonlinear least squares fit for

# L2 4 l2t kpb l1 kbp l2 5 lp l1tl2t 6 end use a

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* L(2); 4 L2t = Kpb * L(1)-Kbp * L(2); 5 Lp = [L1t;L2t]; 6 end Use a nonlinear least squares fit for finding best parameters Joseph M. Mahaffy, h [email protected] i Lecture Notes – Systems of Two First Order Eq — (19/68)

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Introduction Linear Applications of Systems of 1 st Order DEs Nonlinear Applications of Systems of DEs Basic Mixing Problem - Water and Inert Salts Mixing Problem Example Pharmokinetic Problem LSD Example LSD Example 4 MatLab Code for finding best parameters (Nonlinear least squares) 1 function J = leastLSD(p,tdata,xdata) 2 % Create the least squares error function 3 n1 = length (tdata); 4 [t,L] = ... ode45 (@LSD,tdata,[p(1),0],[],p(2),p(3),p(4)); 5 errL1 = L(:,1)-xdata(1:n1); 6 J = errL1' * errL1; 7 end Make an initial guess p 0 = [12 , 5 , 4 , 0 . 4], then use the MatLab command [p,J,flag] = fminsearch(@leastLSD,p0,[],td,L1); where td and L 1 are the data This produces the best parameter values for our model Joseph M. Mahaffy, h [email protected] i Lecture Notes – Systems of Two First Order Eq — (20/68)
Introduction Linear Applications of Systems of 1 st Order DEs Nonlinear Applications of Systems of DEs Basic Mixing Problem - Water and Inert Salts Mixing Problem Example Pharmokinetic Problem LSD Example LSD Example 5 MatLab Code finds the best parameters with previous programs Make an initial guess p 0 = [12 , 5 , 4 , 0 . 4], then use the MatLab command [p,J,flag] = fminsearch(@leastLSD,p0,[],td,L1); where td and L 1 are the data This produces the best initial condition and parameter values for our model d 1 (0) = 9 . 5330 K pb = 2 . 0580 K bp = 5 . 6030 K e = 0 . 32904 The sum of square errors is J = 0 . 079948 The following MatLab commands produce the graph of the plasma compartment [t,L] = ode23(@LSD,[0,15],[9.5330;0],[],2.0580,5.6030,0.32904); plot(t,L(:,1),’r-’,td,L1,’ro’);grid; Joseph M. Mahaffy, h [email protected] i Lecture Notes – Systems of Two First Order Eq — (21/68)

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Introduction Linear Applications of Systems of 1 st Order DEs Nonlinear Applications of Systems of DEs Basic Mixing Problem - Water and Inert Salts Mixing Problem Example Pharmokinetic Problem LSD Example LSD Example 6 Model Graphs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 t (hr) LSD (ng/ml) LSD in Plasma 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 t (hr) 26 . 76 d 2 ( t )+12 . 41 Missed Points d 1 ( t ) with Data Scaled and shifted d 2 ( t ) The graph on the right shows the strong correlation between missed points on the test and the amount of LSD in the Tissue compartment Scores are vertically shifted to account for points missed without LSD Joseph M. Mahaffy, h [email protected] i Lecture Notes – Systems of Two First Order Eq — (22/68)
Introduction Linear Applications of Systems of 1 st Order DEs Nonlinear Applications of Systems of DEs Model of Glucose and Insulin Control Glucose Tolerance Test Competition Model Modeling Diabetes Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a disease characterized by excessive glucose in the blood There are 3 forms Type 1 or juvenile diabetes is an autoimmune disorder, where the β -cells in the pancreas are destroyed, so insulin cannot be produced Type 2 or adult onset diabetes is where cells become insulin resistant, often caused by excessive weight and poor exercise Gestational diabetes happens in some pregnant women

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