Pseudofederal state that both eliminated political

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pseudofederal state that both eliminated political sovereignty for the nationalities and guaranteed them territorial identity, educational and cultural institutions in their own language, and the promotion of native cadres into positions of power. Rather than a melting pot, the Soviet Union became the incubator of new nations. The policy of “nativization” ( korenizatsia ), encouraged by Lenin and supported by Stalin until the early 1930s, contributed to the consolidation of nationality in three important ways: by supporting the native language, by creating a national intelligentsia and political elite, and by formally institutionalizing ethnicity in the state apparatus. Contradiction: on the one hand, korenizatsia and the “renationalization” of ethnic groups in the Soviet years created strong nationalist pressures; on the other, state policies transformed an agrarian society into industrial urban one and promoted assimilation to a generalized Soviet culture.
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January 1918 - Declaration of Rights of the Toiling and Exploited People: “Russia is declared a republic of Soviets of workers’, soldiers’ and peasants’ deputies.” According to the Russian Soviet Constitution, local soviets delegated their representatives to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which in turn appointed an All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK). The
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