Review of international comparative management volume

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Review of International Comparative Management Volume 19, Issue 5, December 2018 such as education, while men migrate to more technologically and better paid sectors. (INS, 2018) Remarkably, Romania is the EU member state in which the gender pay gap is the lowest (5.2%), while the European average has stabilised for 16 years (see Figure 3). (Comisia Europeana, Reprezentanta in Romania, 2018; European Institute for Gender Equality, 2017; OECD, 2018) However, the employment rate is only 57.4% among women (65.3% of the EU average), while among men it is up to 73.1% (76.9% of EU average). The fact that only one of two women is officially employed is strongly influenced by family responsibilities and childcare. The rate of employment of women is correlated with the number of children in preschool education (only 10% of all children under three years go to kindergarten, which places us on the last places in Europe). (Paul, 2016) The greatest challenges are in the domains of time and power. The gender division of time dedicated to care activities has become more unequal. Gender equality in decision-making is below the EU average. The representation of women on corporate boards of publicly listed companies has decreased. In 2005, 14% of members were women, compared to 11% in 2015. (European Institute for Gender Equality, 2017b) Figure 3. Gender wage gap, Employees, Percentage points, Annual, 2014 2017 ( Source : OECD, 2018) 4. Underlying causes What explains these gender gaps? What are the underlying causes? The literature offers a myriad of explanations. The problem arises when young adults try to balance work and family, and women end up carrying nearly all caring responsibilities. Women are more likely to spend time caring for their family. 46% of women have daily care responsibilities for one hour or more, compared to 25% of men. This gap has