Market mechanisms Incentives Subsidies clean development mechanisms government

Market mechanisms incentives subsidies clean

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Market mechanisms Incentives: Subsidies, clean development mechanisms, government allowances, discounted interest rates, and tax reduction [ 35 , 80 ] Other industries 6. Low carbon ports [ 84 , 85 ] 7. Low carbon food production [ 86 ] 8. Low carbon tourism [ 87 ] The literature on LCE also emphasizes the need for a mix of “carrot” market-oriented mechanisms such as incentives, subsidies and clean development mechanism [ 80 ] that encourage enterprises to expedite the upgradation process and attract foreign direct investment (FDI). For example, the city government of Hangzhou provides incentives like government allowance, discounted interest rate, and tax reduction to prominent enterprises to attract them to the city [ 35 ]. The environmental dimension of LCC incorporates the buildings, transportation and mobility, energy, infrastructure, low carbon urban form, and climate resilience (see Table 3 ). Some of these components can be interwoven with economic dimensions, given their contribution to the local economy, while they have an adversarial e ff ect with the natural environment. In China, the building sector accounts for approximately 28% of total primary energy consumption [ 35 ] and 30% of GHG emissions [ 98 ]. Estimates suggest that 20 billion m 2 of housing need to be constructed by 2020, with an estimated 40% of 2030 building stock yet to be constructed, which could substantially increase energy use by 40% [ 99 ]. This provides an opportunity for implementing LC policies in the building industry, which can yield substantial direct and indirect benefits to the environment, society, and the economy [ 81 , 100 ]. Increasing strands of research on the building sector
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Sustainability 2019 , 11 , 4342 12 of 37 have revealed eight common strategies, incorporating operational and embodied energy, that are common interventions of pilot cities and provinces [ 8 , 44 , 83 , 100 , 101 ]. These include: (1) Introducing energy e ffi ciency in new buildings to improve building energy-savings; (2) establishing mandatory green building; (3) strengthening energy conservation for existing energy-ine ffi cient buildings through large-scale retrofit and renovation; (4) renewable energy integration in building systems; (5) support research and development (R&D) and the use of vital energy-saving building materials; (6) accelerating building energy labeling to encourage appropriate technologies; (7) providing market-based incentives to developers and consumers to invests in and purchase energy-conserving, low carbon buildings; and (8) building conservation standards and regulations, and compliance monitoring. The adoption of green buildings is a central goal in the 13th FYP, with established goals to increase green buildings in new construction to 50% by 2020 towards attaining 28% penetration target by 2030 [ 102 ]. During this period, it is projected that China requires USD 250 billion in investments for energy-saving, institutional coherence and policy for large-scale retrofit, construction of green buildings, and energy e ffi ciency of new buildings to ensure mandatory building energy-saving standards [ 103 ]. To accelerate the process, cities are adapting by establishing regulations and mandatory
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  • Dr joseph
  • The Land, LCC

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