# 3 it is more précised and economic 4 replacement of

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3. It is more précised and economic. 4. Replacement of case is easy if the original one is not accessible. Demerits: 1. It is very difficult to divide the universe in homogeneous strata. 2. If strata overlap unsuitable or disproportionate, sample may not be representative. Systematic Sampling: Under this method a sample is taken from a list prepared on a systematic arrangement either on the basis of alphabetic order or on house number or any other method. In this method only the first sample unit is selected at random and remaining units are automatically selected in definite sequence at equal spacing from one another. Steps involved: 1. All the population is arranged in serial order from 1 to N and the size of sample is determined. 2. The Sample interval is determined by dividing the population by the size of sample 3. Any number is selected at random from the first sampling interval. The subsequent samples are selected at equal or regular intervals. Merits: 1. Easy to operate and can be verified at any step. 2. Randomness and probability features are present in this method which makes sample representative. Demerits: 1. It works only if complete and upto date frame is available and units are randomly arranged. 2. Any hidden periodicity in the list will adversely affect the representativeness of the sample. Cluster Sampling: Under this method the population is divided into some recognizable sub- divisions which are termed as clusters and a simple random sample of these clusters is drawn and then the survey of each and every unit in the selected cluster is made. Principles involved: 1. Cluster should be as small as possible with cost and limitations of the survey. 2. The number of sampling units in each cluster should be approximately same

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69 Merits: 1. Provides significant cost gain. 2. Easier and more practicable Demerits: 1. If the number of cluster is very large sometimes representiveness is affected. 2. If the number of units in cluster is not same accuracy in results may be lowered. Multi-Stage Sampling: In this sampling is carried out in various stages. Here the population is regarded as made of a number of primary units, each of which is further composed of number of secondary stage which is further composed of third unit and so on till we reached the desired sampling unit. At each stage is random sampling selection and size may proportional or disproportional depending on the investigation undertaken. Merits: 1. Comparatively Flexible. It is simple to carry out and results in administrative convenience by allowing the field work to be concentrated and yet covering a large area. 2. It is of great significance in survey of underdeveloped area where no updates and accurate frame is available for sub division of material into desired sampling units.
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