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Other daughter cells pushed towards the surface

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other daughter cells pushed towards the surface (happenswithin 40-56 days)As cells move towards the surface, it changes in the cells produceINTERMEDIATE STRATAB.STRATURM CORNEUMStratum CorneumMost superficial layer of the epidermisConsists of dead squamous cells filled w/ keratinKeratin gives the stratum corneum its structural strengthS.C. cells are coated and surrounded by lipids which helpprevent fluid loss through skinComposed of 25 layers of more of DEAD SQUAMOUS CELLSjoined by desmosomesAlthough, eventually desmosomes break apart and the cellsare sloughed from the skinExcessive sloughing of S.C. cells from the surface of thescalp is dandruffif skin is subjected to friction there will be an increase of S.CLayers producing a thickened are: CALLUSif over bony prominence S.C can thicken to form a cone-shaped structure: CORNC.DERMISDermisLayer of dense connective tissueThickness 10-20 times thicker than epidermisResponsible for most of skin’s structural structureComposed of DENSE COLLAGENOUS CONNECTIVE TISSUEcontaining FIBROBLASTS, ADIPOCYTES AND MACROPHAGESExtend into the dermis: Nerves, hair, follicles, smoothmuscles, glands and lymphatic vesselsCollagens and elastic fibersresponsible forstructuralstrengthof the dermisoPop-up-fact: dermis part of animal hide: whereleather is madeCollagen fibers in dermis oriented in many directionsTrans # 1Group # 1: Surname, Surname, Surname | STH: Surname | TH: Surname14 of22
Nervous SystemANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGYBLOCK 8Thus, producing Cleavage lines/ tension lines in the skinSkin is most resistant to stretch along these lineoPop-up-fact: surgeons should know the locationof cleavage lines if they make an incision acrossthe lines it will likely cause a gap and produce ascar tissue BUT if incision is made PARALLEL withthe lines = less scaringSkin is overstretched: dermis will be damagedLeaving lines that are visible through the epidermis: stretchmarks: also, can happen when person increases size rapidlyEx. Form on skin of the abdomenBreasts of women during pregnancySkin of athletes where muscles rapidlyincreased in sizeUpper part of the dermis has projections:dermal papillaeExtend toward epidermisContain many blood vessels that supply overlyingepidermis w/ nutrients, remove waste productsand help regulate body temperatureD.P. in palms of hands, soles of feet and tops ofthe digits are arranged in parallel, curving ridgesthat shape the overlying epidermis intofingerprints and footprintsRidges increase friction and improve grip ofhands and feetoPop-up-fact: Howey Stickum (student nurse)Learns 3 ways to give injectionIntradermal injection: drawing skintaut (stretched tight) and inserting asmall needle at a shallow angle intothe dermis: tuberculin skin testUsually used for most vaccines andcertain antibioticsSubcutaneous injection: pinching skinto form a tent and inserting shortneedle into the adipose tissue ofsubcutaneous tissue: insulin injectionIntramuscular injection: inserting a

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