Substantial wage increases in unionized sectors such

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substantial wage increases in unionized sectors such as manufacturing and transportation. d. Employers frequently used private security firms and local police forces to engage in the violent suppression of striking workers throughout the United States during the wartime and postwar period. For example, in 1919, the large steel producers used the sympathetic local police force in Pittsburgh and private security firms to violently disrupt and defeat striking steelworkers seeking union recognition as part of the nationwide Steel Strike of 1919. e. In 1919, the steel companies brought in thirty thousand African American strikebreakers to defeat a bitter, protracted strike by steelworkers seeking to organize this industrial workforce and bargain collectively. After violent confrontations between strikebreakers and police, on the one hand, and striking steelworkers, on the other, resulted in the deaths of more than a dozen steelworkers and scores of steelworkers jailed and injured, the steel strike collapsed in January 1920. The failure of the nationwide Steel Strike of 1919 denoted a paralyzing long-term setback for the union movement. Question 7 a. Race relations in the South did not improve as a consequence of the movement tens of thousands of African-Americans from Southern states to the North. Jim Crow segregation laws and lynchings of African-Americans continued unabated in the South during the wartime and post-World War I era. b. Correct answer. Race riots and racially motivated gang violence in Northern cities occurred during the wartime years and the immediate postwar years. For example, the migration of large numbers of Southern blacks into white working-class neighborhoods in Chicago and the employment of these African Americans as strikebreakers in meatpacking plants of Chicago produced severe racial tensions in Chicago that exploded into an outburst of deadly racial gang violence and racial killings in July 1919, following a racial incident at a city bathing beach. c. Many African Americans who had migrated from the South to Northern cities during World War I to take advantage of better economic opportunities provided by war industry employment were eager to serve as strikebreakers in various unionized business sectors. For example, many of these African Americans volunteered to be used as strikebreakers to defeat the nationwide Steel Strike of 1919 and served as strikebreakers in other northern industries such as meatpacking. d. The development of a new black middle class did not occur in the early postwar years as a result Southern black migration to Northern cities during the wartime years. The employment gains made by African Americans in these Northern cities suffered a major reversal once defeated striking white industrial workers and returning white soldiers reclaimed their stable industrial jobs after the end of the war. In addition, Northern blacks continued to experience racial discrimination in employment, education, and housing
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that hindered the development of a new black middle class between the two wars.
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