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--- crime motivated by bias against race, ethnicity, Religion, sexual orientation, or disabilityRace is the largest motivating factor Crime and gender---women are less likely to be arrested because they are seen as less of a threat, yet U.S. still has largest female arrest rate in the world which shows how many people the U.S. locks up compared to other countriesCrime and race--- overrepresentation of black males (more likely to be arrested and to be victims), also latinos are 3x more likely to be imprisoned than whites, media emphasizes “black male” crimeThe Rich get Richer and the Poor Get Prison---emphasizes the conflict theory that the rich get to establish the rules so they sway it in their favor so the upper class are less likely to be imprisoned than those of the lower class even if they commit the same crime or if the upper class commits a worse crimeCrime and social class--- depending on your social class you will be treated differently for the same crime, poor are more likely to be imprisoned than the upper class Why do we have so much crime?--american culture puts an emphasis on economic success, US has the largest income gap in the world, guns are easily available and we have a lax gun control Goals of Prisons--(1) retribution-punish, (2) deterrence-threaten, (3) protection, (4) rehabilitationHealth and IllnessHealth: state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being Structural Functionalism- Sociological theory that attempts to explain why society functions the way it does by focusing on the relationships between the various social institutions that make up society (e.g., government, law, education, religion, etc).(how the structures function!)The Sick Role- Talcott Parsons: how sick are viewed and how they behave, expected not to go to work, not take care of kids, nor have serious responsibility, institutionalized in that we think if we are sick then we must go to the doctor, argued being sick means you enter a role of “sanctioned deviance”, for equilibrium we need a system to deal with this, medicine used for social control, illness is deviance--need to control “Sick role theory, as described by researcher Talcott Parsons in 1951, is a way of explaining the particular rights and responsibilities of those who are ill. Since those who are diagnosed with a medical condition cannot always fulfill the same duties that a person in good health can, society adapts to this situation and allows for a reasonable amount of deviation from behavior that would be viewed as typical of a well person. Parsons saw the sick role as a form of deviance, or going against societal expectations, because an ill person has different patterns of behavior than the norm. He argued that people are generally expected to be productive members of society. However, if an ill person is not ableto carry out his or her usual duties, such as work at a job, go to school or care for family members, this deviance from the usual is positively sanctioned, or approved by the community or authority figures. For instance, if you don't show up for school, teachers and administrators