Used in a large variety of consumer productsUsed to make coatings on pillsUsed to make hoses of all kinds
Used to make food packaging materialSome exist in our systemMen with abdominal obesity & insulin resistance are more likely to have high [phthalate metabolite] in their urineDoesn’t mean cause & effectMay mean that they eat more fast food since fatty foods wrapped in plastics will absorb phthalates from the packaging material (so a marker of the amount of fat consumed, not that they cause weight gain)oEndocrine disruptors: hormone-like chemicalsoBisphenol AoSome sunscreen components °°Diet schemesN. Americans spend over $50 bill / year on various diet programsSince 1920s, ~23000 different kinds of diets publishedGrapefruit extractoDoesn’t specify what exactly the compound isoProbably hydroxycitric acidInterferes with some enzymes which convert sugars into fatoUses pseudo-scientific lingoCauses fat cells to “collapse”Diet cookiesWill provide short-term weight loss but not a lifestyle change that will provide long-term consequencesSensa: powder which you sprinkle on food to curb appetiteoFalse advertising, closed down by FTCHoodia: plant that grows in AfricaoKalahari Bushmen eat this to curb appetiteoResearch proves there are appetite-curbing components in plantoVery difficult to isolate compounds (unstable)oCompanies claim to have products with Hoodia effect
°Dr Mehmet Oz (cardiac surgeon)oHCG, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin dietBased on book “Pounds and Inches” by Dr. ATW SimeonsSimeons noticed pregnant women on low-cal diets lost fat instead of muscle & fetus was protectedHypothesize that HCG, a hormone that is produced during pregnancy is responsible for itNever demonstrated to workHCG is expensive (has to be injected)Many products which say they contain HCG are gimmicks & don’t Kevin Trudeau: in infomercials that advertise false products that claim to contain HCG & that it’s effective (when it’s never scientifically proven)Homeopathic HCG is nonsensicalHomeopathic remedies are diluted down to the extent that the original substance is almost nonexistentoRaspberry KeytonesMarketers advertise as “featured on Dr. Oz show” even when Dr. Oz has never approved of the particular brandDr. Oz praised the use of raspberry ketones on his show but never specifically singled out a companyIn lab, raspberry ketone shown to cause fat cells to release a compound called adiponectin, which tricks the body into thinking it’s thinBut no study done on humans to show weight lossVery popular for a while, but quickly replaced by green coffee bean extractoGreen coffee bean extract (GCBE)Joe Vinson (chemist) at University of ScrantonStudy done in India involving 8 men & 8 womenParticipants given GCBE for 6 weeks at a high dose, then a lower dose (w/ washout period in between)Placebo controlled trial
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