= 8608.275 KW
1000
1000
N
s
=
=
100
8608.275
= 50.27
5/4
65
5/4
The head and discharge of the hydro electric plant are 28M and 330M
3
/Sec respectively. The
turbine works with an efficiency of 86%. Find the power developed.
P =
х
х
х
η
=
1000
х
9.81
х
330
х
28
х
0.86
1000
1000
= 77954 kW

1
MALLA REDDY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
SUBJECT: FLUID MECHANICS AND HYDRAULIC
MACHINERY UNIT-4
HYDRAULIC
TURBINES
Turbines are defined as the hydraulic machines which converts hydraulic energy in to
mechanical energy. This mechanical energy is used in running an electric generator which is
directly coupled to the shaft of Turbine. Thus mechanical energy is converted in to electrical
energy. The electric power which is obtained from the hydraulic energy is known as the
Hydro-electric power.
Efficiency of a Turbine:
The following are the important efficiencies of Turbine.
Hydraulic Efficiency,
Mechanical Efficiency,
Volumetric Efficiency,
Overall Efficiency,
Hydraulic Efficiency (
):
it is defined as the ratio of power given by the water to the
runner of a turbine (runner is a rotating part of a turbine and on the runner vanes are fixed) to
the power supplied by the water at the inlet of the turbine. The power at the inlet of the
turbine is more and this power goes on decreasing as the water flows over the vanes of the
turbine due to hydraulic losses as the vanes are not smooth. Hence power delivered to the
runner of the turbine will be less than the power available at the inlet of the turbine.
R.P = Power delivered to the runner
kW
------ for Pelton Turbine
kW ------Radial flow Turbine.
W.P = power supplied at inlet of turbine =
kW
Where
W = weight of water striking the vanes of the turbine per second =
= Volume of water per second
=Velocity of whirl at inlet.
= Velocity of whirl at outlet
= Tangential velocity of vane
= Tangential velocity of vane at inlet of radial vane.
= Tangential velocity of vane at outlet of radial vane.
H
= Net head on the Turbine.

2
Power supplied at the inlet of the turbine in S I Units is known as Water Power.
W.P =
K.W
(For water
= 1000Kg/m
3
)
=
kW
Mechanical Efficiency (
):
The power delivered by the water to the runner of a turbine
is transmitted to the shaft of the turbine. Due to mechanical losses, the power available at the
shaft of the turbine is less than the power delivered to the runner of the turbine. The ratio of
power available at the shaft of the turbine (Known as S.P or B.P) to the power delivered to
the runner is defined as Mechanical efficiency.
Volumetric Efficiency (
):
The volume of the water striking the runner of the turbine is
slightly less than the volume of water supplied to the turbine. Some of the volume of the
water is discharged to the tailrace without striking the runner of the turbine. Thus the ratio of
the volume of the water supplied to the turbine is defined as Volumetric Efficiency.

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- Fall '19
- Fluid Dynamics