43 See Norman et al38 for more details about the creation of consistent

43 see norman et al38 for more details about the

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43 See Norman et al.[38] for more details about the creation of consistent boundaries. 18
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Note also that even when a boundary is supposed to be the same, the overlap between the different boundaries system is not perfect and you might have some gap between two boundaries that are supposed to be the same. The magnitude of the gap is several meters. Thus, even if it causes some error it is first systematic since it looks like a translation of one boundary system several meters away. Sec- ond, and most importantly, it is completely uncorrelated with the data attributed to each subplace. So, in the end, this error-in-variable problem will not cause problems of endogeneity, and we will use our covariates as proxy of the covariates that should have been in the model. Our sample is thus constituted of all subplaces in the 1996, 2001, and 2011. We eliminate particular subplaces such as national parks or some industrial sites, comprising very few individuals. 5 Discussion Before analyzing the results of the decomposition, let us look at what we are currently decomposing first. Segregation curves observed in 2001 and 2011 are plotted in Figure 4a while the observed gap between these two curves is depicted in Figure 4b. The gap seems pretty small at first because Whites lives with only a bit more than 6% Blacks more. In 10 years, we could have expected a more significant decline. 44 However, if we compare to the decline of segregation in the United States, Cutler et al.[18] find a decrease of between roughly 0.07 and 0.1 points of the dissimilarity index between 1970 and 1980, indicating that between 7 and 10% of individuals (Blacks or Whites) have moved to more integrated locations. Thus, the effect seems pretty close from what the United States have experienced in a similar context. 45 The White resistance to a more active implementation of integration policies might be an explanation of this close but lower effect in South Africa. 46 However, despite an encouraging aggregate effort of integration, most of the integration occurs in few subplaces. More than two thirds of the increase occur in the 20% subplaces with the largest Black proportions. We can also note that the proportion of (almost) completely homogeneous subplaces has diminished in 2011. This can be seen from the decrease in the proportion of Blacks and Whites living with (almost) no members of the other group. In 2001, roughly 80% of Blacks 44 Note that an increase of the gap means a reduction of segregation as the gap is positive because the segregation curve in 2011 is above (stochastically dominates) the 2001 curve and thus closer to the equality line. 45 Remember that in 2011, we are 17 years after the end of the Apartheid with the election of Nelson Mandela in 1994. In 1980, the United States were 16 years after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that put an end to the Jim Crow era.
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