Importance- how important are the elements creating the dissonance? Control- how much control does one have over the matters that create dissonance? Rewards- what rewards are at stake in the dissonance? Behavior- actions and judgements 11.3 Perception and Individual Behavior
Perception - the process of interpreting and understanding one’s environment o Five steps in the perceptual process Selective attention: “Did I notice something?” Interpretation and evaluation: “What was it I noticed and what does it mean?” Storing in memory: “remember it as an event, concept, person, or all three?” Retrieving from memory to make judgements and decisions: “what do I recall about that?” 5 distortions in perception o Stereotyping: “those sorts of people are pretty much the same” Stereotyping - the tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs Sex-role stereotype - the belief that differing traits and abilities make males and females particularly well suited to different roles o Age stereotypes Myth: older workers are less motivated, more resistant to change, less trusting, less healthy, and more likely to have problems with work-life balance o Race/ethnicity stereotypes People of color experience more perceived discrimination and less psychological support than whites Implicit bias - the attitudes or beliefs that affect our understanding. Actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner The halo effect: “one trait tells me all I need to know” o When we form an impression of an individual based on a single trait The regency effect: “the most recent impressions are the ones that count” o The tendency to remember recent info better than earlier info Casual attributions - the activity of inferring causes for observed behavior o Even though our causal attributions tend to be self-serving and are often invalid, it’s important to understand how people formulate attributions because they profoundly affect organizational behavior. Two attributional tendencies o Fundamental attribution bias - people attribute another person’s behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors o Self-serving bias - people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect)- the phenomenon in which people’s expectations of themselves or others lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true 11.4 work-related attitudes and behaviors managers need to deal with
Employee engagement: How connected are you to your work? o Employee engagement - an individual’s involvement, satisfaction, and enthusiasm for work o Engaged employees are expected to have feelings of urgency, intensity, enthusiasm, and focus o Employees are more likely to become engaged when an org has the kind of culture that promotes employee development, recognition, and trust between management and employees Job satisfaction: how much do you like or dislike your job?
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- Fall '07