Vitro fertilization (IVF)Women's eggs are removed from her ovaries, and a man's sperm is used to fertilize the eggs in a laboratoryImplanted into the women's uterusGamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) & Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)Egg and sperm or fertilized egg are implanted in a woman's fallopian tubesSurrogate motherWoman who agrees to carry the child to termInfancy and ChildhoodNeonateA newborn childNewborn arrives in the world in a form that hardly meets the standard of beauty against which we typically measure babiesNothing is more beautiful or exciting than the glimpse of their newbornThe Extraordinary NewbornVernixWhite greasy covering, for protection before birthLanugoA soft fuzz, over the entire body for a similar purposeInfant's eyelids may be puffy with an accumulation of fluids because of the upside down position during birthReflexesUnlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuliUnfold naturally as part of an infant's ongoing maturationRooting reflexCauses neonates to turn their heads toward things that touch their cheeksSucking reflexPrompts infants to suck at things that touch their lipsGag reflexTo clear the throat
To clear the throatStartle reflexSeries of movements in which an infant flings out the arms, fans the fingers, and arches the back in response to a sudden noiseBabinski reflexBaby's toes fan out when the outer edge of the sole of the foot is strokedLoose these primitive reflexes after the first few months of life and replace them with more complex and organized behaviorsDistinguish different sounds to the point of being able to recognize their own mother's voices at the age of 3 daysSocial DevelopmentPhysical Development1st year of life, children typically triple their birthweight, and their height increases by about halfAge 3 to beginning adolescence at around age 13Growth averages a gain of about 5 pounds and 3 inches a yearDevelopment of Social Behavior: Taking on the WorldAttachment:Positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individualKonrad LorenzAssessing Attachment:Developmental psychologists have devised a quick and direct way to measure attachmentMary AinsworthBabies reaction to experimental situation vary drastically, depending, according to Ainsworth, on their degree of attachment to the mother:Securely attached children:Employ the mother as a kind of home baseAvoidant children:Do not cry when the mother leavesAvoid her when she returnsAmbivalent children:Display anxiety before they are separated and are upset when the mother leavesSeeks to be close but simultaneously hitting and kicking her
kicking herDisorganized-disoriented children:Show inconsistent and often contradictory behaviorImprinting:Behavior that takes place during a critical period and involves attachment to the first moving object that is observedThe Father's RoleMore physical, rough-and-tumble sorts of activities
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