Chapter 9

Dual concern theory use 2 dimensions cooperativeness

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*Dual concern theory – use 2 dimensions: Cooperativeness Assertiveness Forcing Problem Solving Satisfy one’s own interests w/o concern for other’s interests Make persuasive arguments Make positional commitments Clarify differences to find mutually beneficial outcomes Exchange info about priorities & preferences Show insights Make trade-offs btwn important & unimportant issues Compromising Give up sth to reach an outcome (done by both) Match other’s concessions Search for a middle ground Avoiding Yielding Withdrawing from / ignoring conflict Don’t think about the issues Place the other’s interests above one’s own Make unilateral concessions Make unconditional promises Offer help Uncooperative Cooperative COOPERATIVENESS Trying to satisfy the other person’s concerns - research shows ppl have disposition to handle conflicts in certain ways - some situations call for particular strategies (e.g. child wants to run into street, parent forces) satisfy one’s own concerns Unassertive Assertive
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY What Can Individuals Do to Manage Conflict? Problem solving: Develop super-ordinate goals: create shared goal that requires both parties to work together & motivates them to do so Smoothing: play down differences while emphasizing common interests w/ other party Compromising: agree w/ other party that each will give up sth of value to reach an accord Avoidance: withdraw from / suppress conflict When conflict is work-related… additional techniques: Expansion of resources: create win-win situation for conflict due to scarcity of resource ($, promotion, office space) Authoritative command: management use formal authority to resolve conflict & communicate its desire to parties involved Altering human variable: behaviourial change techniques (e.g. human relations training) Altering structural variables: change formal org. structure & interaction patterns of conflicting parties thru job redesign, transfers, creation of coordinating positions Resolving Personality Conflicts Factors that lead to personality conflicts: Misunderstandings based on age, race, cultural diff.s Intolerance, prejudice, discrimination, bigotry Perceived inequities Misunderstandings, rumours, falsehoods about individual/group Blaming for mistakes / mishaps (finger-pointing) - result in lowered productivity - cause co-workers to take sides b/c parties try to seek sympathy from others - best to work it out btwn themselves Resolving Intercultural Conflicts Multiculturalism & global environment → conflict - contact w/ ppl from other cultures → misunderstanding when ppl ignore diff. perspectives that might result from cultural differences - High- vs. Low-Context cultures (reply on words, less formality w/ ppl of diff. status) Across culture, ppl have diff. ideas about appropriateness & effects of conflicts - Mexicans: conflict should be kept private
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY Asians: conflict almost always has –ve effect on work unit;
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Dual concern theory use 2 dimensions Cooperativeness...

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