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Oil retention enemas 2 lubricate the rectum and colon

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Oil retentionenemas #2lubricate the rectum and colon. The feces absorb the oil andbecome softer and easier to pass. To enhance the action of the oil, the patient retains the enemafor several hours if possible.Carminative enemas #3provide relief from gaseous distention.Medicated enemas #4contain drugs. An example is sodium polystyrene sulfonate(Kayexalate),which is used to treat patients with dangerously high serum potassium levels.This drug contains a resin that exchanges sodium ions for potassium ions in the large intestine.Another medicated enema is neomycin solution, an antibiotic that is used to reduce bacteria inthe colon before bowel surgery.oHow to administer, complications, management of complications•You will review the steps for enema administration in the skills lab.•Sterile technique is unnecessary because the colon normally contains bacteria.•However, wear gloves to prevent the transmission of fecal microorganisms.•Explain the procedure, including the position to assume, precautions to take to avoiddiscomfort, and the length of time necessary to retain the solution before defecation.•If the patient needs to take the enema at home, explain the procedure to a familymember.•Often the health care provider orders “enemas until clear.” This means that the enemais repeated until the patient passes fluid that is clear and contains no fecal material. It isoften necessary to give as many as three enemas, but caution the patient against usingmore than three. Excessive enema use seriously depletes fluids and electrolytes. If theenema fails to return a clear solution after 3 times (check agency policy), or if the patientseems to not be tolerating the rigors of repeated enemas, notify the health care
provider.•Giving an enema to a patient who is unable to contract the external sphincter posesdifficulties. Give the enema with the patient positioned on the bedpan. Giving the enemawith the patient sitting on the toilet is unsafe because the curved rectal tubing scrapesthe rectal wall.[See Box 46-8 on text p. 1108Procedural Guidelines: Digital Removal ofStool.]•For a patient with an impaction, the fecal mass is sometimes too large to passvoluntarily. If enemas fail, break up the fecal mass with the fingers, and remove it insections.•Digital removal is a last resort in the management of severe constipation and ispracticed when all other methods have failed. The procedure is very uncomfortable forthe patient. Excessive rectal manipulation causes irritation to the mucosa, bleeding, andstimulation of the vagus nerve, which results in a reflex slowing of the heart rate.•Because of the potential complications of the procedure, a health care provider’s orderis necessary to remove a fecal impaction.

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Term
Spring
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Feeding tube, Enema

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