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Tumor markers psa prostate test liii x ray ultrasound

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Tumor markers- PSA prostate test l.iii. X-ray, ultrasound, MRI, CT scan- changes in tissues or organs l.iii.1. Radioisotopes - trace metabolic pathways and assess function l.iv. Cytologic tests- evaluate biopsies of suspicious masses and check sloughed cells in specific tissues l.iv.1. Only dependable confirmation of malignancy- confirm diagnosis m. Spread of malignant tumors m.i. Invasion- local spread into adjacent tissues m.ii. Metastasis- spread to distant sites by blood or lymphatic channels m.ii.1. First metastasis appears in the regional lymph nodes m.ii.2. Micrometastases - spread of malignant cells not yet detectable m.ii.3. Lungs and liver common secondary sites m.iii. Seeding - spread of cancer cells in body fluids or along membranes usually in body cavities m.iii.1. Ovarian cancer- throughout peritoneal cavity n. Staging of cancer- classification process- describes extent of disease at the time n.i. Prognosis - probable outcome of a disease n.ii. TMN system: n.ii.1. Size of primary tumor (T) n.ii.2. Involvement of regional lymph nodes (N) n.ii.3. Spread or metastasis of tumor (M) n.iii. Stage I tumors- small well localized, easy to treat, good prognosis n.iv. Stage IV tumors- well advanced, difficult to treat, poorer prognosis o. Carcinogenesis- normal cells transformed to cancer cells o.i. Process varies with time o.ii. Cancer is mulifactorial disease- environmental, heredity, infection o.iii. Stages of carcinogenesis: o.iii.1. Initiating factors- procarcinogens cause first irreversible changes in cell DNA (genetic or environmental) no active neoplasm o.iii.2. Exposure to promoters (hormones &environmental chemicals) cause further changes in DNA o.iii.2.a. Dysplasia or anaplasia may be evident o.iii.2.b. Leads to tumor development o.iii.3. Continued exposure and changes in DNA- malignant tumor capable of growth and invasion o.iii.4. Changes in the regulation of growth- cells capable of detaching and spreading (metastasis) p. Risk factors p.i. Genetic- oncogenes (genes cause cancer) regulate growth p.ii. Viruses- oncoviruses alter host cell DNA p.iii. Radiation- UV rays, X-rays, gamma rays, radioactive isotopes p.iv. Chemicals- organic solvents, asbestos, heavy metals, formaldehyde, chemotherapy agents p.v. Biologic- irritation, inflammation, age, diet, hormones
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q. Risk reduction q.i.
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