Demographic transition shift in a population or

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Demographic transition Shift in a population or society through a serous of stages from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. Environmental racism A type of discrimination that results in the concentration of poor racial minorities in densely packed, poorly served urban neighborhoods, often with greater levels of pollution and location near waste dumps and heavy industry. Gentrification The restoration and upgrading of deteriorated urban property by middle-class or affluent people, often resulting in displacement of lower-income people. Gemeinschaft Social situations in which those involved treat one another as ends rather than as means; primary relationships based on sentiment, found most often in rural life. Gesellschaft Social situations in which those involved treat one another as means rather than as ends; secondary relations based primarily on calculation and individual interest, found most often in city life. Mechanical solidarity Durkheim’s term for the kind of tight, homogenous social order typical of pre-industrial, primarily rural society. Organic solidarity Durkheim’s term for the new social order of industrial society, which was based on interdependent, though not necessarily intimate, relationships. Neighborhood effects Influences on people’s lives that result from living in one type of neighborhood rather than another (rich vs. poor, dangerous vs. safe) Population Density The number of people who live within a geographic area, usually expressed as people per square mile or km. Positive checks Part of Malthusian Theory – these prevent overpopulation by increasing the death rate. They include war, famine, pestilence, and disease. Preventive checks Part of Malthusian Theory – these prevent overpopulation by limiting the number or survival of live births. They include abortion, infanticide, sexual abstinence, delayed
marriage, and contraceptive technologies. Suburbanization The process by which housing spreads almost unhindered into once rural regions surrounding the city core. This greatly expands the geographic size of cities and takes out of production valuable agricultural land, and there is a noticed shift of the affluent out of the urban centre to these surrounding areas. Urbanization The growth in the proportion of the population living in urbanized areas. There is also an increasing appearance in rural areas of behavior patterns and cultural values associated with big-city life. Chapter 10 – WAR AND TERROR Ideology A system of beliefs that explains how society is, or should be; any system of ideas underlying and informing political action. In a Marxist sense, ideological ideas justify and legitimate subordination of one group to another. World Systems Theory A theory that examines the relations between states in a global system. Imperialism Core states are accused of engaging in imperialism. The exercise of political and economic control by one state over the territory of another. It is carried out mostly through military means, but it does not always require military conquest. Economic imperialism is far safer, less costly, and more stable than political imperialism. Globalization

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