The fadh 2 product is used in oxidative

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The FADH 2 product is used in oxidative phosphorylation. This results in the regeneration of two ATP molecules, and recovers the energy spent to form the first acyl-CoA intermediate. 2. Addition of water to the newly formed double bond to generate the alcohol by enoyl-CoA hydratase N H 3 + OH O O N H 3 + O O O R1 O Carnitine Acyl-carnitine S O R1 H H H H S O R1 H H S O R1 H H S O R1 OH H
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3 3. Oxidation of the alcohol by NAD + to give the ketone; catalyzed by β -hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The reduced NADH is reoxidized by molecular oxygen in oxidative phosphorylation to yield 3 (or 2.5) ATP molecules. 4. Cleavage reaction by β -ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (Thiolysis) Summary of the thiolase steps: A. Nucleophilic attack of a Cys residue (Cys-S - ) onto the ketone carbon ( β -carbon) to form an acyl-enzyme intermediate. B. Breakage of the α - β bond to produce the anionic acetyl-CoA group (carbanion). C. Anionic acetyl-CoA group abstracts a proton from a general base on the enzyme to form acetyl-CoA. D. Nucleophilic attack of CoASH onto the keto group of the enzyme-acyl intermediate. E. Breakage of the acyl-enzyme bond to release acyl (n-2) CoA.
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