35 gender pay gap australia november 1997 november

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Gender pay gap, Australia, November 1997 – November 2017 36 Source:
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Evidence of pay discrimination? Do these figures help explain the differences in pay between men and women? 37
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Examining the pay gap: horizontal segregation Industrial segregation women working in different industries than men Occupational segregation over-representation of women in particular, often low paying, occupations 38 Soruce data:
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Feminisation rates in the OECD 39 When comparing hourly wages, sector and/or occupation are the most important factors driving the gender wage gap (Blau and Kahn, 1997 and Flabbi and Tejada, 2012).
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The impact on women's pay The reality some of the lowest paid industries in Australia (Accommodation and Food Services, Arts and Recreation Services and Retail trade) tend to employ the highest proportion of female employees without paid leave entitlements (61 per cent, 48 per cent and 34 per cent respectively). Source ABS Gender Indicators, Australia, Aug 2013 What’s the attraction of these industries to women? family friendly and flexible working hours But if this is an individual’s choice is it a policy issue? better possibilities to combine work and family responsibilities for men and women, resulting in a smaller gender pay gap society is not realizing the return on investment in female education AND there are longer terms benefits of improving superannunation, and savings and job security 40
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The long term impact of the pay gap (or cost of interrupted work patterns) Individual scenario a 32 year old woman leaving the workforce for two years to care for young children, and intending to retire at age 65, will reduce her superannuation savings by the following amounts $65,000 salary = $28,000 Superannuation debt $85,000 = $36,500 Superannuation debt $115,000 salary = $50,000 Superannuation debt Economy scenario reducing women’s reliance on the age pension by 10% would conservatively save $2 billion per annum today and $8 billion per annum in 2050 by working an additional three years across working life, women have the potential to accrue $237,000 of additional income at today’s average earning rates Source: EY (2013) 41
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Policy context of reducing the pay gap Addressing industrial and occupation segregation education? attainments of men and women have improved but females still gravitate toward the low paid sectors 42 “Too often women’s employment decisions appear to be constrained by different factors which mean they are more likely than men to end up sometimes in low-paid work with limited prospects of advancement” OECD
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The role of education in reducing the pay gap 43
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How has education affected the pay gap? Returns to investment 44 Average individual income for women and men, by educational attainment (2007 and 2014) Source: KPMG (2016). She’s Price(d)less: the economics of the gender pay gap. Retrieved from
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