3.) Heightened Colonial Control o Taxation without representations o Denial of Fair Trial AMERICAN REVOLUTION o Britain - Mother of the 13 Colonies - Laws were against the Magna Charta 1.) Limited Monarchy - Rights 2.) Fair Trial 3.) Tax with Representation - Colonies appealed for Reforms Boston Massacre
4 o George III - Leader of Britan - lifted some of the reforms but implemented the Tea Act Monopolize Tea o Boston Tea Party - against the Tea Act - Reacted by throwing tea to the sea 1 st Continental Congress - for peace - Led to the ambush at Lexington and Concord - King ordered Britain army to kill Samuel Adams and John Hancock (Leaders of Reforms) Supporters ambushed the British Army Start of the REVOLUTION George Washington – leader of the 2 nd National Congress American Independence - Declared on July 4, 1776 - Written by Thomas Jefferson emphasizes HUMAN RIGHTS freedom from Tyranny o After the declaration Britain sent more troops to get back the colonies Mercantilism Agenda o War between US (Patriot vs. Loyalist) and Britain Armies US Armies Britain Armies George Washington – farmer More Modern Technologies (weapons, strategies) Independent Colonies (no loyalty, no funds) Paid and Trained Army Commitment and knowledge of the Terrain Suspicion, not supported - George Washington tried to use Militia (fighting for your own Colony) - British WON Battle at Saratoga - “Turning point” - US Victory - Loyalists changed their side - Funds were given by the loyalist - Foreign aids come in by France and Spain - Victory in Yorktown o Lord Cornwallis - a corrupt leader that was surrounded by the armies - surrendered to the US at Yorktown because of the cut-off of food and weapons INDIPENDENT US Central Government: WEAK - Constitution Federal Government o Executive – execute laws o Legislative – draft laws o Judicial – evaluate laws Consequence: Other countries wanted to be independent as well FRENCE REVOLUTION Causes of the French Revolution 1.) Liberty- liberty from Medieval Structures Division between the Rich (luxury) and Poor (Hunger) loyalty 2.) Equality – abolition of the Estates General Clergy, Nobility, Peasantry 3.) Fraternity – Equal Opportunity for all 4.) Economic Decay 5.) Enlightened Ideas – Control of Government, Human Rights Phase One: Reforms o May 1789 - King Louis XVI called for the Estates General to talk on the issue of tax collection to resolve the debt problem of France - The three estates did not agree on changing the rules on votation Not Successful o June 1789 - Third Estate established the National Assembly - Later on joined by two other estates to talk about tax collection
5 o July 14, 1789 - The peasants being all fired up siege the Bastille , a symbol of the Old Regime’s Tyranny abuse Weapons o August 27, 1789 - Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizens (education for all) - 1791 Constitution Safe Guarded the Citizens Phase Two: Violent Reprisals -
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