MAE2_Lecture15

# Cfr part 25 transport positive load factor limit

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CFR Part 25 (transport) Positive load factor limit, n_plus > 2.5 g Negative load factor limit, n_minus < -1 g (typical)

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9 MAE 2 V-n Diagram Load Factor Airspeed n = L W = 1 2 V 2 S / W C L , max n =− 1 2 V 2 S / W k L C L ,max n minus n plus n = 1 V corner V stall Positive limit load factor Negative limit load factor Maximum dive speed 0.6 k L 1.0 V corner = 2 n plus W / S C L ,max
10 MAE 2 Lift Distributions The lift distribution specifies how aerodynamic lift is spread over the entire wing. L y = 4 L b 1 2y b 2 L y = 2 L b 1  [ 1 2y b 1 − ] L = nW = lift n = load factor W = weight c t = tip chord c r = rootchord = taper ratio = c t / c r Elliptical Wing: Trapezoidal Wing: Lift Distribution : L(y) y = spanwise location b = wingspan

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11 MAE 2 Stress and Strain A load (force) applied to a structural element causes stress in the material. = F A F = applied force A = cross section area = stress Compression: Tension: F F F F l ≡ l l Strain measures how the material reacts to applied loads. The modulus of elasticity defines a linear relationship between stress and strain. = E = strain E = Young ' s modulus of elasticity l length = l
12 MAE 2 Shear Strain and Strain Shear acts tangentially to the cross-sectional area under load.

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