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DSST Intro to Law Enforcement

Crime index summarizes the measurements of 8 major

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Crime Index – summarizes the measurements of 8 major offences a.i. Murder a.ii. Forcible rape
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a.iii. Robbery a.iv. Aggravated assaults a.v. Burglary a.vi. Larceny-theft a.vii. Motor vehicle theft a.viii. Arson b. Crimes against a Person – called “Headline Crimes” – due to ability to create public fear b.i. Murder and non-negligent manslaughter b.ii. Forcible rape b.iii. Robbery b.iv. Aggravated assaults 60. FBI Crime Clock – a picture of crime frequency in the US created by using the UCR statistics a. Differentiates between violent crimes (murder and rape) and property crime (burglary and arson) 61. Clearance Rate – term used in the UCR to measure and compare the rate of reported crime against the cased that have been solved 62. Crime Awareness and Campus Security Act 1990- requires college campuses to publish annual security reports – usually shared with the FBI 63. Human and Social Cost of Crime – not measured, loss of security and reduced quality of life are not measured 64. US Judicial System – a. State and Local Court – under the State government a.i. Trial courts – limited jurisdiction also called “special jurisdiction” – deal with misdemeanors – rarely hold trials and are also known as the lower courts a.ii. Appellant courts – hear appeals from convicted Defendants who ask for review of the decision of the lower court a.ii.1. Appellant courts may uphold judgment (known as Reaffirm) or require the lower court to modify it a.iii. State supreme court b. High Courts – “general jurisdiction” superior courts or circuit courts can hear any criminal case b.i.1. Empowered by law to hear criminal case whether minor or serious b.i.2. Utilized fact-finding foundation known as “Adversarial Process” b.i.2.a. Adversarial process pits the State’s interest (prosecution) against the defendants (defense lawyer) c. Federal Court System – formed by congress and authorized by the Constitution c.i. Article III, Section I of the Constitution d. Roles of Courts d.i. Adjudicate on matters that are brought before the court, d.i.1. including pre-trial motions, d.i.2. bail hearings d.i.3. criminal trials d.i.4. responsible for sentencing and interpreting constitutional rights d.ii. US Supreme Court – plays an important role in interpreting constitution d.ii.1. Main role is judicial review decisions of lower courts and government agencies d.ii.2. Gideon vs Wainright (1963) suspects were entitled to a lawyer 6 th Amendment even if they could not afford one d.ii.3. Appeals to the US Supreme Court are allowable only if it can be shown that the defendant’s federal Constitutional rights were breached d.ii.4. Also deals with disputes between states and attorney disbarment
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