21 Bernstein’s articles include “The Atomic Bombings Reconsidered,” Foreign Affairs 74, 1 (January-February 1995), 135-152 and “Understanding the Atomic Bomb and the Japanese Surrender: Missed Opportunities, Little Known Near Disasters, and Modern Memory,” Diplomatic History 19, 2 (Spring 1995), 227-273. See also John RaySkates, The Invasion of Japan: Alternative to the Bomb (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1994) and John D. Chappell, Before the Bomb: How America Approached the End of the Pacific War (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1997). 22J. Samuel Walker, “Bomb! Unbomb!,” New York Times Book Review, December 12, 1999, 35; Richard B. Frank, Downfall: The End of the Japanese Imperial Empire(New York: Random House, 1999), 360. 23Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan(Cambridge and London: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2005). 24Michael Kort, “Racing the Enemy: A Critical Look,” Historically Speaking, January/February 2006, 2224; David Holloway, “Jockeying for Position in the Postwar World: Soviet Entry into the War with Japan in August 1945,” in The End of the Pacific War, 145-188; Sadao Asada, review of Racing the Enemyin The Journal of Strategic Studies29, 1. (February 2006), 169-171. 25 Wilson D. Miscamble, C.S.C., From Roosevelt to Truman: Potsdam, Hiroshima, and the Cold War (Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 325. See also Maddox, “Give Me That Old Time Revisionism,” Continuity, Spring 2003, 121-145. 26 Tsutoshi Hasegawa, ed., The End of the Pacific War: Reappraisals(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007); Robert James Maddox, ed., Hiroshima in History: The Myths of Revisionism(Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press, 2007); Michael Kort, The Columbia Guide to Hiroshima and the Bomb ( New York: Columbia University Press, 2007). For a volume that examines some niche aspects of the Hiroshima debate, see Michael D. Gordin, Five Days in August: How World War II Became a Nuclear War (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007).27Sean L. Malloy, Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to Use the Bomb Against Japan(Ithaca and New York: Cornell University Press, 2008); Andrew J. Rotter, Hiroshima: The World’s Bomb(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009). See especially page 307. About half of a third volume, Campbell Craig and Sergey Radchenko’s The Atomic Bomb and the Origins of the Cold War(New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008), is devoted to the events that led to the bombing of Hiroshima, but the authors rely heavily and uncritically on bits and pieces of Sherwin, Bernstein, and Hasegawa, adding to that mix little more than unsubstantiated assertions and speculation to produce a discussion that is uninformed and often incoherent.28D. M. Giangreco, Hell to Pay: Operation DOWNFALL and the Invasion of Japan, 1945-1947(Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2009), 204; Wilson Miscamble, C.S.C., The Most Controversial Decision: Truman, the Atomic Bomb, and the Defeat of Japan(Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011).
Michael Kort is professor of social science at Boston University's College of General Studies. Hereceived his B.A. in history from Johns Hopkins University and his M.A. and Ph.D. in Russian history from New York University. He is the author of several books on the history of the Soviet Union and the Cold War, including The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath(sixth edition, 2006); The Columbia Guide to the Cold War(1998); The Columbia Guide to Hiroshima and the Bomb(2007); and A Brief History of Russia (2008).