kept doing this for 21 generations based on maze running performance Claims

Kept doing this for 21 generations based on maze

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kept doing this for 21 generations based on maze running performance - Claims that he bred two different strains of rats that perform differently on mazes Four Types of Validity - Construct Validity: whether the constructs claimed to be studying is actually what they are studying, are they actually measuring what they are measuring? o Difference between inference at operational level, and inference at the conceptual level o Does operationalization of variables reasonably capture the constructs the researcher is studying? o E.G More than 20,000 Canadians feel sad in February, what does sad mean, how do you reach this conclusion, how was this operationalized o E.G Belly fat linked to dementia- How was belly fat measured, what do you mean by dementia? o E.G Anonymity promotes violence in angry university students- about DV, about IV1, about IV2 o Do we accept that maze learning ability represents intelligence? - intelligence is abstract and complex, § Alternate labels- it’s a measure of inquisitive vs. uninquisitive, keen sensory skills, vs dull sensory skills, motivated vs unmotivated, fearful vs not fearful Statistical Conclusion Validity 1 Proper treatment of data - Assumptions (N, distribution, measurement scale) - Debate over robustness on inferential statistical tests 2 Soundness of researcher’s conclusion - Type 1 errors, false alarms and we want avoid these errors, p < 0.05 is just a convention doesn’t mean it’s right - Type 2 errors, a miss, not enough statistical power, have to make sure N is big enough, power analysis before collecting data will give you the N needed given the null strength of the effect E.G Tyron’s Rats: - Was concerned that hos data made it appear as though he has created two strains of rats the look like they have differences, but what if the error bars are actually overlapped - it looks like the two groups are different, by generation 7 there was 0 overlap between the performance groups, no overlap in errors
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Internal Validity - Refers to the idea that we are confident that exposure to the independent variable rather than other factor has caused difference to dependent variables - We have to use good experimental control, all the participants had the same experience except experience of independent variable, in order to make causal claims - Only explanation for the effect is changes in the independent variable - E.G Tyron had environmental control before and during testing, temperature control, the feed was the same - E.G. Elliot at Al- Random assignment to levels of independent variable, had strict environmental control, had strict light, pen, desk instructions o Was very strict in order to isolate the independent variable as the only possible explanatory variable in the experiment External Validity - Refers to generalization of the research across many domains such as o Populations o Settings- would this happen in the real world, methods; if the lab setting is very fake then it is hard to generalize o Species- Does experimenting on animals apply to humans, does experimenting on rats apply to humans o Elliot et Al- Populations- used high school and university students in the U.S and
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  • Fall '15
  • Dr. Ostovich
  • Midterm 1, researcher

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