We see something is a cow or a dog because it participates in cowness or

We see something is a cow or a dog because it

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We see something is a “cow” or a “dog” because it “participates” in “cowness” or “dogness,” etc. So, too, it is beautiful because it “participates” in the Form of “beauty.” The essences are implicit in the things (but in an imperfect, vague way).
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Idealism Our ideas of things are “truer” than the things themselves. My impression of a chair does not unveil the essence of the chair. If I get a clear concept, then I know what the various individual chairs all have in common. To apprehend a concept is to grasp the essence of the thing. This elevates us to the level of “being,” the level of the eternal.
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Soul The soul: the element of the eternal in the individual. It allows access to the world of the eternal. The access to the eternal: It is not through revelation or intuition. It is through reasoning. In Plato’s philosophy, the soul preexisted the body in the world of the Forms, and coming to know something is an act of “remembering.”
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Being The world of Forms is thus the world of pure Being (which in the Middle Ages is viewed as the Mind of God). It exists beyond the world, yet is reflected in the world. But relying on sense experience will only allow us to see “reflections” of being. To grasp being, we must think rationally.
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The Quest for Knowledge https://
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Discuss the allegory What are some of the main messages of the allegory? 1) Epistemology: what is knowledge according to Plato? 2) Education: what is learning according to Plato? 3) How does the allegory criticize the government or media? 4) How does the prisoner represent the human condition? 5) How does Plato address ignorance and fear? 6) What does Plato think the role of philosopher is?
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The divided line: prerequisites for true knowledge 1. Question the presuppositions of everyday understanding. (the shadows and/or empirical objects) 2. Reason on the basis of scientific presuppositions (views of atoms, evolution). (Discursive reason) Here we rise to the level of knowledge 3. But our knowledge is not secure until we have grasped the truth of the presuppositions. (Direct Intuition) This is the job of philosophical dialectical thinking.
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Plato On Politics and Ethics
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Why be just?
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