Pros and Cons of Social Contract Theory Arguments for o based on individual

Pros and cons of social contract theory arguments for

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Pros and Cons of Social Contract Theory: Arguments for: o based on individual rights o justifies action outside of self-interest (common good) o provides a clear way to analyze issues regarding relationship between people and government (e.g. why is it acceptable to punish someone for a crime?) Arguments against: o None of us signed the social contract! (i.e. it's an implied agreement) o Some actions/situations are subjective -- multiple interpretations o How to solve a situation where rights conflict? 2
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Julio Vasquez Project Part 2 o May be unjust to those who are incapable of upholding their side of the "contract" (e.g. the mentally ill) John Locke considered property in the state of nature as insecure because of three conditions: - Absence of established law - Absence of impartial judge - Absence of natural power to execute natural laws Under the social contract, man did not surrender all their rights to one single individual, but they surrendered only the right to preserve/maintain order and enforce the law of nature. The individual retained with them the other rights: right to life, liberty, and estate because these rights were considered natural and inalienable rights of men. My ideal social contract is not different than what it is today. We have evolved as a community and as individuals. I would only add a few tweaks for men and women like the freedom of gay marriage, and the legalization of medical drugs. But as mentioned, these are minor tweaks, overall I am conformed and pleased with our social contract today. 2. Utilitarianism, Retribution, and Restitution Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, usually defined as maximizing total benefit and reducing suffering or the negatives. Act utilitarianism: 3
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Julio Vasquez Project Part 2 Act utilitarianism is a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that a person's act is morally right if and only if it produces at least as much happiness as any other act that the person could perform at that time. Rule utilitarianism: Rule utilitarianism is a form of utilitarianism that says an action is right as it conforms to a rule that leads to the greatest good, or that "the rightness or wrongness of a particular action is a function of the correctness of the rule of which it is an instance. For rule utilitarians, the correctness of a rule is determined by the amount of good it brings about when followed. In contrast, act utilitarians judge an act in terms of the consequences of that act alone. Retribution: The concept of retributive justice has been used in a variety of ways, but it is best understood as that form of justice committed to the following three principles: (1) that those who commit certain kinds of wrongful acts, paradigmatically serious crimes, morally deserve to suffer a proportionate punishment; (2) that it is intrinsically morally
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