What counts as valid and reliable knowledge and when

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(what counts as valid and reliable knowledge) and when decision stakes reflect conflicting purposes among stakeholders, the methodologies of normal science are ineffective. In such contexts, decision-making processes should acknowledge uncertainty and include in dialogue all those with a stake in the issue. New methods must be FIGURE 11.1 Post-normal science (adapted from Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993). Manifesto for Designing Bett er Futures 163 made to make our ignorance usable (Funtowicz and Ravetz 1993: 743) and new ways to determine legitimacy and competence will extend peer communities to broader social and cultural institutions. Post-normal science requires uncomfortable knowledge and clumsy solutions (Rayner 2006) rather than selecting between well-defined alternatives based on knowledge, the certainty and quality of which have been assured. What this means for this M(B)A is that it rests on a lack of knowledge that stimulates conversation, humility and question-making about purposes and values, a space in which design theory and practice play an important role in moving from research to action. A second foundational idea is the attention paid by scholars within science and technology studies (STS) to the ways scientific knowledge and technologies are produced, legitimized and institutionalized (cf. Foucault 1972; Bijker et al. 1987; Callon 1987; Law 1987; Latour and Woolgar 1986; Latour 1987; Latour 2005; Sismondo 2004). Space does not allow even a modest attempt to characterize what is a large and interdisciplinary field but two ideas are drawn out relevant to the project in this manifesto. The first is the attention within STS to understanding science and technology as thoroughly social processes, in which scientists, engineers, managers, designers and others are engaged in struggles for resources and in which conflicts are not to be ignored but rather are sites that illuminate what is of concern. The second idea is the favoured methodology of scholars working in this tradition. Through detailed, local ethnographies of scientists and engineers and their working practices, this research has presented evidence of the messy, contingent, worlds in which knowledge is constructed and action takes place. Science, technology and the knowledge involved in constituting them are not neutral, nor are they unproblematically human centred. What this means for this manifesto is that truth claims about design or management are not just accepted or presented without qualification. Thus far we have considered the limitations on the knowledge base for this imaginary M(B)A. We now turn to the second important difference between this M(B)A and existing programmes, which is the approach to disciplines and their boundaries. Claims about interdisciplinarity and new kinds of knowledge fused between disciplines are rooted in expectations of accountability and the relevance of research to stakeholders (Nowotny et al. 2001). But the abstract notion of interdisciplinarity promoted by policy makers and funders can turn out to be more complicated in practice, which raises questions for the project to combine design and management. In an
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