Here, the Turkish Ottoman Empire controlled Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), Palestine, Syria, and Arabia. British and Indian troops invaded Mesopotamia in 1914 and finally captured Baghdad in 1917. Meanwhile, a large British force captured Palestine and in the last weeks of the war, the Syrian capital of Damascus. In Arabia, Bedouin soldiers under the guidance of T.E. Lawrence rose in revolt against their Turkish rulers and waged a guerilla campaign for an independent Arab State. While this is a Hollywood version of history, I do recommend watching ‘Lawrence of Arabia’. The protagonist was a romantic hero and the film takes this approach in re-telling the story. Lawrence first visited the Middle East in 1909 and learned to speak Arabic. In 1914, he became an army intelligence officer in Cairo, Egypt. Later he worked as liaison offer to the leader of the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Turkish rule. Lawrence helped the Arabs to become an effective guerilla force, blowing up railroad lines, attacking Turkish garrisons, and tying down an army many times their size.
5 Slide 9 When the war broke out in 1914 airplanes were mainly used by private individuals and not considered useful to state governments. Military leaders could not see how aircraft could be used in war, but soon they changed their minds. The first airplanes were reconnaissance craft, looking down on enemy position or helping to direct artillery fire. When enemy fire tried to shoot scouting planes down, this led to dogfights in the air. In 1917 the Germans came up with the Fokker line that was adopted by both sides and able to carry bombs to drop on enemy targets. By the end of the war, airplanes technology had produced agile crafts that made sharp turns at high speeds. Airplanes even took pictures of enemy front lines using photography too. Often times pilots flew at night too which had its obvious dangers. For example, this information in 1914 proved invaluable to the Allied troops in stopping the advance of the Germans in the Battle of the Marne. Another new member to air power was the Zeppelin that came into the war in 1915. These German Airships flew over London and caused panic, because at only moment they could release bombs from their bays and they flew very high out of range of enemy aircraft ground artillery. But soon higher flying airplanes and fire making bullets brought these aerial bombers down to earth. But throughout the war most Zeppelins were used for reconnaissance work at sea. Slide 10 When men went off to fight, the women were called upon to take their place on the home front. Many women were already working as nurses, teachers, on their family farms or as laborers. Society deemed these roles suitable for women. But European nations were at war. Now women went to factories, drove trucks and ambulances, and did almost anything a man did before the war. Women left their low income clerical jobs too to work in munitions factories and other industrial pursuits that brought them social attention. But the gains by women were short lived as when the war ended
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