28 copernican revolution heliocentric model planets

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28. Copernican Revolution- heliocentric model, planets orbit the sun in circular orbits, moon orbits Earth. 29. Tycho- built an observatory, measured positions of objects over 30 years to an accuracy of 1’, found a nove(new star), measured a parallax proving it was near Venus. 30. Kepler’s 3 laws. 1- orbit of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus. 2- as a planet moves around its orbit, a line connecting the planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times(consequence-planets move faster when they are closer the the sun), 3- more distant planets orbit the sun at slower average speeds than closer plants, p^2=a^3 31. ellipse- a conic section produced by the intersection of a plane with a cone when the plane is passed through the cone at an angle to the axis other than 0 degrees or 90 degrees. semi-major axis- half of the longer axis of an ellipse, semi-minor axis- ,eccentricity-a measure of the departure of an ellipse from circulatory; the ratio of the distance b/n the two foci of an ellipse to its major axis. 32. Galileo’s observations of phases of venus were proof that it orbits the sun, not Earth 33. Newton’s 1st- An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an outside force. An object as rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by an outside. 2nd- A net force causes a change in motion such that Fnet=Ma =mass times acceleration. Thus, if the same force is applied to two objects with different masses, the less massive object will be accelerated more. 3rd-for every force there is an equal and opposite force
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34. Sun’s gravitational pull causes planets to orbit the Sun, direction the force is pointed- towards the Sun. 35. Weight-force equal to the mass of an object multiplied by the local acceleration due to gravity. Mass-property of matter defined by its attractive force on other objects. 36. Astronauts orbiting the Earth are weightless because of the vacuum in space. 37. Bound orbit- a closed orbit in which the velocity is less than the escape velocity. Unbound orbit-an orbit in which the velocity is greater than the escape velocity. 38. Lunar Eclipse: moon moves into the shadow cast by the Earth. Solar: moon is between the earth and sun. The moons shadow falls on part of earth 39. Bound orbit: elliptical/circular; Unbound: hyperbolic/parabolic.. the object is going faster than escape velocity.
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