Lack of feeling of achievement, results are not visible, no growth perceived ○ Not status changes over long term ● The Psychological Contract ○ An implicit understanding of mutual contributions and obligations between a person and an organization ■ Employee Provides Work ● Time ● Effort ● Trust ● Creativity ● Productivity ● Etc. ■ Employer Provides Pay ● Benefits ● Empowerment ● Security ● Recognition ● Satisfaction ● Etc. ● OB in Action: The Psychological Contract ○ Seen by Employer: ■ If you: ● Are loyal ● Work hard ● Do as you’re told ■ We’ll provide: ● Secure job ● Steady pay increases ● Financial security ■ And you’ll be part of:
● A dull but safe organization ○ Seen by Employee: ■ If you: ● Stay ● Do your job plus someone else’s ● Volunteer for extra tasks ■ We’ll provide: ● A job if we can ● Gestures that we care ● The same pay ■ And you’ll be part of: ● An untrustworthy organization ● Manager’s Dilemma ○ Rewards’ System: ■ One for all, simple and clear ● Vs. ■ Taking into account motives of each employee ● Contemporary Trends & Challenges ○ How to attract employees that are intrinsically motivated to work in our business? ○ We hire life values, not qualifications ○ Try to help to realize one’s own life values through his/her work ○ Diversification of both monetary and non-monetary forms ● Knowledge Workers: A Challenge for XXI Century? ○ Term introduced in 1960s (P. Drucker) ○ More than 20-30% of all working population in developed countries ○ In some industries - over 90% of staff ○ Differ significantly from other groups of employees ■ Common management tools don’t work ● Knowledge Workers… ○ In the knowledge society the most probable assumption and certainly the assumption on which all organizations have to
conduct their affairs is that they need the knowledge worker far more than the knowledge worker needs them. (Peter F. Drucker) ● Knowledge Workers: Who are they? ○ … Information is a key resource for the work ○ … Intellectual (mental) work prevails ○ … Specific professions ○ … Level of education (higher education) ○ … Capability to create new knowledge ■ KW = fits all criteria or some of them? ● Shift in Power Balance ○ Immanent ownership of highly valuable asset ○ Good will for sharing and application of knowledge ○ (and partial ownership of final product) -> ○ Power shift in employer-employee relationship -> ○ Changes in all management practices? ● Some Challenges in Managing KW ○ Peculiarities of KW intrinsic motivation ○ Difficulties to measure the outcomes of knowledge work (problem of control) ● Controlling KW Results… ○ Work efficiency (how strong are employee efforts?) ○ Potential maximum -> Gap -> Controlled by managers ● Why KW Motivation?
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