Significant limitations linguistic relativity

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significant limitations—linguistic relativity hypothesis: language shapes the nature of thought—studies on color processing and time judgments point to influence of language on thoughtlanguage and thought are separate to some extent—organize knowledge about objects, events or other stimuli by creating concepts, prototypes, and exemplars—acquiring concepts:family resemblance theory = items in same category share certain featuresprototype theory = uses most typical member of category to assess new itemsexemplar theory = we compare new items w stored memories of other members of category—neuroimaging studies show that prototypes and exemplars are processed in dif parts of brain—brain organs concepts in distinct catogires such as living things and human-made thingssupported by studies of people w cognitive and visual deficits —visual experience is not necessary for development of such categories —human decision making often departs from rational process—people make judgments based on something they know how to solve/dojudging memory strength, judging similarity to prototypes, estimating frequencies —> errors of judgment —avoiding losses > achieving gains
framing & emotional info effects choices—prefrontal cortex important role in decision making—problem solving = process in which new inputs/problems are interpreted in terms of old knowledge—solutions generated depends on organization of our knowledge —we frame things based on what we already know & understand—functional fixedness = example of knowledge that restricts our problem solving process—people excel at practical reasoning but not so much at theoretical reasoning (requires evaluation of truth of a set of arguments)— belief bias = distortion of judgments about conclusions of arguments —> cause people to focus on believability of conclusions rather than their logical connections—neuorimaging — evidence that Dif brain regions are associated w Dif types of reasoning—strategies to understand memory, perception, learning, thought & language:carefully examining errors and integrating info about brain into our psychological analysesBOOK QUIZZES:1. The SMALLEST units of sound that are recognizable as speech, rather than as random noise, are called:phonemes

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