4 according to the authorities under the current 24

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are filed through ABI. 4. According to the authorities, under the current 24-hour system (see below), some products are more apt to be examined than others. While CBP maintains a programme of random examination throughout its automated systems, enforcement and security concerns based on country of origin and identity of companies involved, may also result in examination. In addition, goods considered to be trade-sensitive, such as textiles and clothing products, are subject to a higher percentage of examinations than other commodities. Examination can vary from an X-ray check of an entire sea container to X-ray and opening of individual boxes in a shipment. 5. Interested parties may appeal decisions related to customs issues to the United States Court of International Trade (CIT). Appeals regarding customs duties are governed by the provisions of Section 516 of the Tariff Act of 1930 as amended (19 U.S.C. 1516). 2 6. A Customs Modernization Program has been under way since 2001. It began with the introduction of the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), which is due to replace the ACS for cargo imports. It also introduced the International Trade Data System (ITDS), focusing on export operations. ACE and ITDS will form a single Internet portal to provide a single electronic interface for the international business community to interact not only with CBP but also with other government agencies involved in import, export, and passenger movement through U.S. border crossings. 3 7. ACS and ACE will initially operate in parallel. The ACE cargo processing system was initially scheduled to start operations in the spring of 2004 and continue in phases extending through 2006. 4 In the wake of the September 2001 attacks, however, implementation was accelerated and the programme was redesigned towards enhanced security; a number of measures taken to that effect 1 A list of Federal Register notices relating to Customs is available online at: http://www.cbp.gov. 2 United States Court of International Trade information is available online at: http://www.cit.uscourts. gov. 3 See "ACE & Modernization: Overview of Key Features for the Trade", available online at: http://www. customs.gov.
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WT/TPR/S/126 Trade Policy Review Page 35 have already resulted in important practical changes in customs operations, as described below. ACE will now encompass both the Container Security Initiative (CSI) and Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism initiative (C-TPAT). (a) The Container Security Initiative (CSI) 1. In January 2002, the U.S. Customs (now CBP) launched the Container Security Initiative (CSI), whose objective is to prevent containerized cargo from being exploited by terrorists. 5 Under the initiative, each participating country signs a "bilateral Declaration of Principle"; subsequently, the CBP posts U.S. inspectors in foreign seaports to screen containers destined for the United States before they depart rather than after they arrive on U.S. shores. According to the authorities, there is no government regulation establishing the CSI requirements.
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