o Skill : Specific to the task The specific capacity to physically manipulate objects o Performance : = Skill x Motivation
Successful performance depends on the right combination of effort, ability, and skill. o Sleep deprivation is a threat to abilities, skill, effort, and performance Emotions : complex, patterned, organismic reactions to how we think we are doing in our lifelong efforts to survive and flourish and to achieve what we wish for ourselves o Positive vs Negative Positive emotions : emotions that are congruent (consistent) with an important lifetime goal. Example: relaxation and enthusiasm Negative emotions : emotions that are triggered by frustration and failure when pursuing one’s goals Goal incongruent. Example: fatigue and nervousness The constructive or destructive nature of a particular emotion must be judged in terms of both its intensity and the person’s relevant goal You can use positive emotions to cope with profound negative emotions o Trait and State perspectives State emotions predict some behaviors Conclusions: Individual Differences o Worth considering? o Why or why not?
WORK MOTIVATION Employee Motivation : the willingness on the part of the individual to exert a high level of effort toward a particular task or goal. o Must push the right buttons to motivate employees Behavior is voluntary Individuals make conscious choices about levels of effort Everyone has the potential to be motivated Motivation often blocked by circumstances in the workplace Rewards and Motivation o Managers are advised to enhance effort → performance expectancies by helping employees accomplish their performance goals. Managers can do this by providing support and coaching and by increasing employees’ self-efficacy. It’s also important for managers to influence employees’ instrumentalities and to monitor valances for various rewards . No best type of reward because individual differences and need theories tell us that people are motivated by different rewards Managers should focus on linking employee performance to valued rewards regardless of the type of reward used to enhance motivation o Two classes of rewards expected to influence motivation : Intrinsic : Feeling good when performing well; feeling bad when performing poorly. “Flow” Extrinsic : Base Salary, Incentives, Benefits o Connection between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Rewards : Controversial o How might these rewards be used to boost motivation? Expectancy Theory : people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes o Generally, expectancy theory can be used to predict motivation and behavior in any situation in which a choice between two or more alternatives must be made Examples: predicting whether to quit or stay at a job; whether to exert substantial or minimal effort at a task; whether to major in management, marketing, or finance; etc.
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- Spring '13
- Management, Organizational studies, Example, Quality of goods