This is known as the partial reinforcement effect

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This is known as the partial reinforcement effect. Answer: c Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Reference: 253 Skill: Factual Objective: Understand how schedules of reinforcement affect behaviour. 104) Which of the following is true concerning partial schedules of reinforcement? a. Interval schedules tend to yield higher rates of responding as compared to ratio schedules. b. Ratio schedules tend to yield higher rates of responding as compared to interval schedules. c. Fixed schedules tend to yield higher rates of responding as compared to variable schedules. d. All combinations of intermittent schedules tend to yield similar rates of responding. Correct: Ratio schedules tend to generate relatively high rates of responding. This outcome makes sense in light of the fact that in ratio schedules, reinforcement is based on how often you engage in the behaviour. This is not the case with interval schedules, which tend to generate lower rates of responding. Answer: b Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Reference: 253 Skill: Factual Objective: Understand how schedules of reinforcement affect behaviour. 105) B.F. Skinner rigged the cages of pigeons so that food was delivered every 15 seconds. Within a short time most of the pigeons were practising some sort of consistent behaviour, even though the behaviour did not have any effect on the delivery of the reinforcer. The birds were
a. demonstrating spontaneous recovery. b. developing phobias. c. demonstrating the partial reinforcement effect. d. behaving superstitiously. Correct: This experiment demonstrated the development of superstitious behaviour. Superstitious behaviour can occur when reinforcement is delivered randomly, because whatever behaviour precedes the reinforcer will become more likely to occur, even if it had nothing to do with its delivery. Answer: d Diff: 3 Type: MC Page Reference: 253–254 Skill: Factual Objective: Understand how schedules of reinforcement affect behaviour. 106) Which of the following statements is true regarding corporal punishment? a. Spanking is generally a very effective punisher when it is used for immediately stopping a behaviour. b. There is no evidence that spanking can lead to poor mental health. c. Corporal punishment teaches appropriate behaviours. d. Corporal punishment is best if administered several hours after the target behaviour has occurred. Correct: Spanking is generally a very effective punisher when it is used for immediately stopping a behaviour. However, few psychologists advocate spanking and other severe forms of punishment because they do not teach children appropriate behaviour and are associated with poor mental health. When punishments are administered, they are most effective when they occur immediately after the behaviour. Answer: a Diff: 2 Type: MC Page Reference: 255 Skill: Factual Objective: Analyze the effectiveness of punishment on changing behaviour.

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