1 Anecdotal evidence headaches dizziness fatigue mood changes 2 No great deal

1 anecdotal evidence headaches dizziness fatigue mood

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1. Anecdotal evidence: headaches, dizziness, fatigue, mood changes 2. No great deal of evidence that it can cause these problems in humans 3. True that the breakdown of aspartame to phenylalanine can give rise to a number of brain chemicals 4. People that are heavy drinkers of diet drinks: possible that these anecdotal effects could be caused by the release of these brain chemicals Video 7 1. Epidemiological Studies do not suggest that aspartame is linked to Parkinson, MS, and/or Cancer 2. Aspartame and Brain Tumours? 1. Aspartame was introduced in 1980's, there was also an increase in brain tumours 2. Two things occur at the same time = doesn’t mean they are related!!! 3. Not a causative relationship
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4. If you extend the incidence of brain tumours, the consumption of aspartame went up while the brain tumours leveled off 3. Causation vs. Association 1. …is association with an increased risk of… 4. Aspartame is the most studied chemical additive present in food 5. Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI): 40 mg/kg --> 50 mg/kg in U.S. 6. NOAEL*: (No observed adverse effect level) -- 4000 mg/kg 7. ADI: ~5mg/kg 1. Example: a 70 kg man would have to drink 1. ~20 cans a day to reach the ADI 2. ~1600 a day to reach the NOAEL 8. Some studies: aspartame could cause cancer in test animals 1. Ramazzini Institute (2005): Female rat show a statistically significant increase in lymphomas and leukemias when fed doses close to human consumption 2. Doses fed to the rats were similar to human consumption 9. Based on this evidence, health authorities found no reason to change the ATI 10. Breakdown products of aspartame is phenylethylamine (PEA) 1. Phenylethylamine is interesting: may be associated with love 2. People that had a psychological condition that made them fall easily in love had high brain levels of phenylethylamine 3. Suggesting that phenylethylamine is a breakdown of aspartame, suggests that people that drink diet drinks in large amounts will fall easily in love 11. Aspartame is present together with Acesulfame-K in a number of diet drinks 1. Example: Coca-Cola Zero 2. Diet Coke only contains aspartame while Coca-Cola Zero contains aspartame with acesulfame-K 12. Equal Classic: mixture of aspartame and acesulfame-K 13. Equal (regular): contains only aspartame 14. Acesulfame-K 1. Sweetness: x200 / Calories: 0/gram 2. Bitter aftertaste; never used on its own Video 8 1. Splenda 1. Important advantage over aspartame: HEAT STABLE 2. Heat stable: it can be used in bake products such as cakes etc. 3. Splenda = brand name / Technical name = sucralose 1. Splenda sucralose is derived from sucrose 1. Sugar molecule has three of its OH- groups replaced by chlorine 2. Chlorinated derivative of sucrose 3. OH- is replaced by chlorine 4. Sucralose chemical name of compound is… 1,5-dichloro- 1,6-dideoxy-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chlor-4-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranoside 1. Sweetness is interesting 1. Accidental discovery: King's College in London 2. The graduate student that was new to the English language; misunderstood "test" and thought he said "taste" .. Noticed it was sweet; then developed as an artificial sweetener 3. Sweetness of sucralose is x600 times sweeter than sugar / Calories: 0/gram 4.
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