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10. A critical summary of research on a topic of interest is a literature review.Unit 6- Chapter 8: Theoretical and conceptual frameworksHigh quality research requires conceptual integration, one aspect of which is having a defensible theoretical rationale for the study.As classically defined, a theory is an abstract generalization that systematically explains relationships among phenomena. Descriptive theory thoroughly describes a phenomenonGrand theories (or macrotheories) attempt to describe large segments of the human experience. Middle-range theories are specific to certain phenomena.Concepts are also the basic elements of conceptual models, but concepts are not linked in a logically ordered, deductive system.In research, the goals of theories and models are to make findings meaningful, to integrate knowledge into coherent systems, to stimulate new research, and to explain phenomena and relationships among them. Schematic models (or conceptual maps) are graphic representations of phenomena and their interrelationships using symbols or diagrams and a minimal use of wordsA framework is the conceptual underpinnings of a study, including an overall rationale and conceptual definitions of key concepts. In qualitative studies, the framework often springs from distinct research traditions.18
Several conceptual models of nursing have been used in nursing research. The concepts central to models of nursing are human beings, environment, health, and nursing. An example of a model of nursing used by nurse researchers is Roy’s adaption model.Non-nursing models used by nurse researchers (e.g., Bandura’s social cognitive theory) are referred to as borrowed theories; when the appropriateness of borrowed theories for nursing inquiry is confirmed, the theories become shared theoriesIn some qualitative research traditions (e.g., phenomenology), the researcher strives to suspend previously held substantive theories of the specific phenomena under study, but each tradition has rich theoretical underpinningsSome qualitative researchers seek to develop grounded theories, data-driven explanationsto account for phenomena under study through inductive processesIn the classical use of theory, researchers test hypotheses deduced from an existing theory. An emerging trend is the testing of theory based interventions. In both quantitative and qualitative studies, researchers sometimes use a theory or model as an organizing framework, or as an interpretive toolUnit 6 - Opening ReflectionComplete the following drop and drag exercise to see if you can differentiate between a CONCEPTUAL MODEL (CM) and a THEORY (T). Note each answer may be used more than once.�Definitions An abstract generalization that explains how phenomena are interrelated. (T) Abstractions assembled because they relate to a common theme. (CM) Links concepts in a logically derived deductive system. (T) A broad explanation of the system of interest. (CM) Provides a mechanism for logically arriving at a new statement from original propositions.