PET (positron emission tomography): Visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of soft tissue. MRI scans show brain anatomy.fMRI (functional MRI): A technique for revealing blood flow and therefore brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. fMRI scans show brain function as well as structure.Brainstem: The oldest part and central part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull, the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions.Medulla: The base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing.Thalamus: The brains sensory control centre, located on top of the brainstem, it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.Reticular Formation: A nerve network that travels through the brainstem into the thalamus and plays an important role in controlling arousal.Cerebellum: At rear of brainstem. Functions include processing sensory input, coordinating movement output and balance, and enabling nonverbal learning and memory.Limbic System: Neural system, includes hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus. Located below the cerebral hemispheres, associated with emotions and drives.Hippocampus: A neural centre located in the limbic system, helps process explicit memories for storage.Amygdala: Two lima bean sized neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to emotion.Hypothalamus: A neural structure lying below the thalamus, it directs several maintenance activities (eating), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland and is linked to emotion and reward.Electrical Brain Stimulation Brain Mapping: Used to discover things about the brain that were never known before.Cerebral Cortex: Part of the brain that separates us from animals, it's the most recent evolutionary development. It is interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres, the body’s ultimate control and information processing centre. It is divided into lobes: Frontal, Temporal, Parietal, and Occipital.