The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami hitting Thailand Wenchuan earthquake China 2008

The 2004 indian ocean tsunami hitting thailand

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5 Major earthquakes in the US 1906 San Francisco earthquake (700 deaths) (M=8.3) 1989 Santa Cruz (or Loma Prieta) earthquake (M=7.0) 1992 Landers earthquake (M=7.5) 1994 Northridge earthquake (M=6.9): 56 deaths, $15 billon damage 2002 Alaska earthquake: 600-km-long fault rupture; remote region (M=7.9) Death toll is usually low, but property damage can be tremendous Distribution of earthquakes and earthquake hazard maps Global distribution of earthquakes Distribution of earthquakes Most earthquakes (>95%) are along plate boundaries, few are in the interior of a plate 1. Mid-ocean ridges: typically small earthquakes 2. Subduction zones: Large (and small) earthquakes Indonesia: Sumatra earthquakes Japan: Tokyo earthquake, Kobe earthquake China: Tibet earthquakes, Taiwan’s Chichi earthquake USA: Oregon and Washington (rare but can be huge) 3. Transform faults: Large (and small) earthquakes San Andreas Fault; 1906 San Francisco earthquake Intraplate earthquakes are relatively few, but historically among the most deadly Examples: Shaanxi earthquake, Tangshan earthquake, Gansu earthquake, Gujarat earthquake Earthquake hazard map differs from the distribution of earthquakes: 1. Population: Submarine earthquakes (mid-ocean ridges and some subduction zones) do not show on a hazard map; 2. The possibility of large earthquakes is emphasized in hazard map Curiously, the most deadly earthquakes are mostly in China and India (intraplate), why? China 1556, Shaanxi, China (death toll 830,000), intraplate 1920, Gansu, China (200,000), intraplate 1976, Tangshan, China (242,000), intraplate (China alone accounts for >50% earthquake deaths of the 20th century, mostly due to intraplate earthquakes) India 1737, Calcutta, India (300,000?), intraplate 2001, Gujarat, India (20,085), intraplate Other deadly earthquakes 2010, Jan 12, Haiti, magnitude 7.0 (death toll ~316,000) 2004, Sumatra, Indonesia (229,866), subduction zone 1923, Tokyo, Japan (143,000), subduction zone
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